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PART V.-THE BITUMINOUS COAL MINING INDUSTRY IN THE SOUTH.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Households studied--Members of households for whom detailed information was secured-Employees for whom information was secured [Text Tables 459 to 463 and General Tables 200 to 202].

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

As regards the scope of the investigation in the South, the households studied were in the southern West Virginia and Virginia coal fields. Individual employees were studied in all the coal-producing areas of Virginia, West Virginia, and Alabama. The following table shows the number of households studied in the South, by race of head of household:

TABLE 459.-Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Of the 309 households studied more are of the South Italian than any other race. The Magyars report in numbers almost as large as the South Italians and are followed by the Poles, who also report in a large proportion. Altogether these races constitute a fraction over 70 per cent of the total number of households studied. English, German, North Italian, Lithuanian, and Slovak races, on the other hand, constitute each less than 10 per cent of the total number of households studied.

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MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

The table next presented shows the number of persons in the households studied and the persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 460.-Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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From the above table it will be seen that, of the 1,893 persons in the households studied, the persons in households whose heads are South Italians, Magyars, and Poles constitute nearly 75 per cent. persons in the Magyar households appear in largest numbers, representing 26.3 per cent of all persons in households studied, and the persons in households whose heads are English, with 2.9 per cent, represent the smallest proportion. Those in households whose heads are Germans, North Italians, Lithuanians, and Slovaks are also reported in relatively small proportions.

It will also be seen that of all persons for whom detailed information was secured, those of the Magyar households, with 26.2 per cent, constitute the largest proportion, and members of households whose heads are English, constitute the smallest proportion, or 3.1 per cent. The South Italian households report a proportion that is only slightly smaller than that for the Magyar households. The persons in households whose heads are Poles come next to the South Italian households in numbers, and the Slovak, North Italian, German, and Lithuanian households, with a small proportion each, follow in the order named.

The number of persons of each race and the number and proportion of males and females in the households studied are shown in the follow

ing table, according to general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 461.-Sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The foregoing table shows the proportion of males in the households studied to be largely in excess of that of the females, the highest percentage of males being found in the households whose heads were North or South Italians, and the lowest in German households.

The following table shows the number and per cent of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race of individual:

TABLE 462.-Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

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Comparing the native-born and foreign-born, it will be seen that the latter show a larger proportion of both males and females than do the former, although the difference in proportion is not so large in the case of the females.

Of the foreign-born races, the South Italians, Magyars, and Poles, in the order named, show the largest proportions of males. The same is true of the females, except that both the Magyars and Poles show larger proportions than the South Italians. No other race shows a proportion in excess of 6.6 per cent for either males or females, while six races show a total absence of females.

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

The table next presented shows, according to general nativity and race of individual, the number and per cent of bituminous mine workers for whom detailed information was received:

TABLE 463.- Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and

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