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report 8 per cent earning over $3.50 per day, as against 4 per cent of the native whites. Among persons earning $1.50 or over, the percentage of Slovaks is slightly lower than that of three other races the Croatians reporting 99.6 per cent, Poles 98.5, and Magyars 98.4 per cent.

On the other hand, of those earning $2 or over per day, the Scotch lead with 85.1 per cent, closely followed by the Germans, English, and Slovaks, in the order named, with the Poles and Bulgarians next in order. Little difference exists between the Magyars and North Italians. The South Italians and Croatians report a smaller percentage earning $2 or over per day than do the other races.

Of those earning $3 or over, the Slovaks lead with 19.4 per cent, followed by the Scotch, Germans, English, Bulgarians, South Italians, North Italians, and Poles, with little difference between the last three. In the group earning over $3.50 per day the Slovaks report 8 per cent, as compared with 4 per cent of the native whites, the Germans, English, Poles, and negroes following, with the per cent ranging from 2.8 on the part of the Germans and English to 2.3 per cent each for the Poles and negroes.

In addition to the daily and annual earnings of males of 18 or more than 18 years of age, it is of importance to consider the earnings of the younger mining employees. With this object in view, the table below is submitted to show the number and percentage of 794 males between the ages of 14 and 18 years, in the principal races, earning each specified amount per day:

TABLE 492.-Per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per day, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In the returns for all races set forth in the table above, it is seen that about four-fifths earn $1 or more, and about three-fifths $1.25 or more per day. Of all reporting, 46.1 per cent earn $1.50 or over, while only 11.5 per cent have a daily earning ability of $2 or more. Twenty-one per cent of the total native-born as compared with 11.1 per cent of the total foreign-born earn less than $1 per day.

Only 14 per cent of the native-born of native father, and 15.9 per cent of native-born of foreign father exhibit an earning capacity of less than $1 per day. Only 46.7 per cent of native whites born of native father, however, as compared with 63.2 per cent of all foreign-born persons and 69.4 per cent of the South Italians earn. daily $1.50 or more. Moreover, only 9.4 per cent of the native white persons born of native father, as against 23.1 per cent of all foreign-born persons and 30.6 per cent of the South Italians, have daily wages of $2 or more than $2. Foreign-born persons who are receiving under $1 per day constitute a proportion 9.9 per cent less than do the native-born persons of the same wage class.

In this connection it is of interest to compare the daily earning ability of the negroes and of the mine workers of foreign birth. Of the former 21.6 per cent, and 11.1 per cent of the latter are earning less than $1 per day. Moreover, only 52.9 per cent of the negroes as contrasted with 73.5 per cent of the total foreign-born and 75.5 per cent of the South Italians, are daily receiving a wage of $1.25 or more than that amount. Only 37.6 per cent of the negroes as compared with 63.2 of all foreign-born persons and 69.4 per cent of the South Italians are classified as earning $1.50 per day or more. employees, 9.7 per cent earn between $2 and $2.50 per day. The proportion of men receiving wages in excess of $2.50 is slightly less for the native-born than for the employees considered in the aggregate.

DAILY EARNINGS IN WEST VIRGINIA.

Of all the

Daily earnings were also obtained for 5,580 of the employees in the coal and coke industries of West Virginia. Of these employees, 5,250 are 18 years of age or over, and the remainder, 330, between 14 and 18 years of age. Of the employees 18 years of age or over, 2,641, or about 50 per cent, are native-born. Ninety-three and onetenth per cent of these native-born persons are of native fathers and 6.9 per cent of foreign fathers. The persons native-born of native father are, in turn, about 86 per cent whites and about 14 per cent

negroes.

Figures showing in detail the range of daily earnings, by general nativity and race of employees 18 years of age or over, are given in the following table:

TABLE 493.-Number of male employees 18 years of age or over in West Virginia earning each specified amount per day, by general nativity and race.

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*

Number earning each specified amount per day.

$1.25 $1.50 $1.75 $2 $2.50 $3 $3.50

ings Un- and and and and and and and and $4 or

per der day. $1.

under under under under under under under under over. $1.25. $1.50. $1.75. $2. $2.50. $3. $3.50. $4.

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

• Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The largest proportion of the employees 18 years of age or over earn $2 and under $2.50 per day.

Of the entire number of employees between 14 and 18 years of age, more receive between $1 and $1.25 per day than receive any other rate of wages, as is shown in the next table. This is true, also, of the native-born persons, treated as a group, of the persons nativeborn of native fathers, both whites and negroes, and of the persons native-born of foreign fathers. Of the foreign-born, more are paid at a rate of between $1.75 and $2 than are paid at any other rate, owing probably to the fact that the largest proportion of the foreignborn mine workers are engaged in occupations usually followed by older employees.

The wages of employees between 14 and 18 years of age in West Virginia are given by nativity and race in the following table:

TABLE 494.-Number of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age in West Virginia earning each specified amount per day, by general nativity and race.

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Number earning each specified amount per day.

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$1 $1.25 $1.50 $1.75 $2 $2.50 $3 and and and and and and and under under under under under under under $1.25. $1.50. $1.75. $2. $2.50. $3. $3.50.

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

MONTHLY EARNINGS IN REPRESENTATIVE COAL MINES IN SOUTHERN

WEST VIRGINIA.

In addition to the original information received from households and individuals, transcriptions were also made from the pay rolls of representative companies. The following table shows, by occupation and by race, the monthly earnings of the operating force in a typical mine in southern West Virginia:

TABLE 495.- Monthly earnings of the operating force in a typical coal mine in southern West Virginia, by occupation and race.*

*

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

From another representative mine in the same section, the average monthly earnings have been computed by race and conjugal condition and are shown in the following table:

TABLE 496.-Monthly earnings of the operating force in a typical coal mine in southern West Virginia, by conjugal condition and race.*

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

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