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RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

The tables next presented set forth the effect which different periods of residence have had upon the daily earning ability of the principal foreign-born races residing in the southern coal fields.

TABLE 497.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shu downs or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

TABLE 498.-Comparative earnings per day of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.).

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

TABLE 493.-Comparative earnings per day of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States-Continued.

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A comparison of the specified daily earnings of the principal foreign-born races having a residence of less than five years in the United States shows that the Slovaks lead all others by a wide margin, this race reporting 80.8 per cent earning over $2 per day, as compared with 648 per cent Poles and 62.5 per cent Magyars, the two next in rank. In this same class the North Italians show a higher per cent than the South Italians and Croatians. As between the Slovaks, Poles, and Magyars the same relative position is maintained up to and including those earning over $3.50 per day.

It is worthy of note that each race, with the exception of the Croatian in the $1.50 or over wage group, with a residence of between five and nine years in the United States reports a larger per cent with specified daily earnings than those with a residence of less than five years until a wage rate of $3 per day is reached. At this wage level only one race, the Poles, with a residence between five and nine years shows a smaller per cent earning this amount and over, than the members of the same race who have resided here less than five years. Of those earning $3.50 or over per day, three races, the Croatians, Poles, and Slovaks, show a smaller per cent than the same races with a residence under five years, the others showing a small increase.

Of all those earning $3.50 or over per day, during all periods of residence, the Slovaks show a greater decrease than any other, reporting 1.5 per cent with a residence of ten years or over earning above this amount, as compared with 6.3 per cent between five and nine years, and 12.2 per cent under five years.

The proportion of Croatians earning $1.25 or over and $2 or over, during all periods of residence, is practically the same; whereas, 64.2 per cent residing here between five and nine years earn $2 or over and 21 per cent $2.50 or over, as compared with 62.5 and 25 per cent in the United States ten years or over; and 50.7 and 13.3 per cent, respectively, under five years. With the North Italians, each succeeding period of residence shows a higher percentage earning

up to $3.50 per day, when a slight decrease from those with a residence of between five and nine years is shown by those who have resided here for ten years or more. In the case of the South Italians the per cent of those earning $1.50 or over, $3 or over, and $3.50 or over per day is slightly smaller with those who have been here ten years or over than with those with a residence of between five and nine years. Of those earning $2 or over, 67.6 per cent have been in the United States ten years or over, 61.9 per cent between five and nine years, and 51.1 per cent under five years. The South Italians earning $2.50 or over report 30.4 per cent for those with the longest period of residence, 28.5 per cent for those between five and nine years, and 21.3 per cent for those under five years. The Poles show a higher average throughout, according to the number of years in the United States, than the Magyars, reporting 64.8 per cent under five years, 79.5 per cent between five and nine, and 70.7 per cent ten years or over, as compared with 62.5 per cent, 75.2 per cent, and 68.1 per cent, respectively, of the Magyars. Of the Slovaks residing in the United States under five years, 80.8 per cent earn $2 or over per day, and 40.4 per cent $2.50 or over, as compared with 84.4 per cent and 46.1 per cent, respectively, of those with a residence between five and nine years, and 85.1 per cent and 44.8 per cent, respectively, of those who have been here ten years or over.

With the exception of the North Italians, and to a lesser extent of the South Italians and Poles, it is apparent from a study of the above tables that a larger percentage of the other races, who have been in this country between five and nine years, show higher specified daily earnings than those who have been in the United States ten years or over, or, in other words, the earning capacity of the several races reporting increases between five and nine years, after which time a decrease is noted, which is more pronounced with some races than with others.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

An indication of the industriousness of the men of a given race may be found in the percentage of the heads of families regularly employed. Data upon this subject relating to the coal and coke workers of Virginia and West Virginia are printed in the following table:

TABLE 499.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The total number of families included in the preceding table is 230, and the total number of husbands the same. It will be noted that all the husbands, both native and foreign born, are reported as at work. The percentage of employment is, in the case of every race,

100.

As a result of the investigation in the coal fields of Virginia and West Virginia, reports from 230 foreign-born male heads of families, show the average yearly earnings to be $500. The average annual earnings, together with the range of annual earnings, is shown in detail in the following table:

TABLE 500.-Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see p. 284.]

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Upon information secured from 230 male heads of families in this locality, it will be noted that the average yearly earnings are $500. Of the foreign-born races for which information was obtained, the Germans report the highest average earnings, or $663, followed by the North Italians with $544, while the earnings of the Poles, Magyars, Slovaks, and South Italians, in the order named, range from $483 to $456 per year. None of the male heads of families who furnished information earn less than $200, and only 1.7 per cent earn $1,000 or over per year, while 75.2 and 26.5 per cent earn less than $600 and $400 per year, respectively.

Only three races, the South Italians, Magyars, and Poles, are reported in sufficient numbers to admit of a comparison. Of these races, the Magyars report the largest proportion earning under $400 and the smallest proportion under $600 per year. As between the South Italians and Poles, there is little difference in the proportions earning under $400 or $600 per year, the former reporting a slightly larger proportion than the latter earning each of these amounts. The entire number of South Italians earn less than $800 per year, while the Magyars and Poles show each a small proportion earning $800 or over. The Poles also report a small proportion, or 1.9 per cent, earning $1,000 or over per year.

$600.

Under

$800.

Under

$1,000.

Under

$200.

Under

$400.

Under

$600.

Under

$800.

Under

$1,000.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In addition to the data for heads of families, information was also secured as to the annual earnings of all male members of the families studied who were 18 years of age or older. This is exhibited in the following table, by general nativity and race:

TABLE 501.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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In the table above computations for averages were made only for races reporting 10 or more, and percentages were computed only for those races reporting 20 or more persons. Comparisons can only be made therefore for foreign-born English, German, North and South Italian, Lithuanian, Magyar, Polish, Russian, and Slovak males. As the total for foreign-born and the grand total includes all reported, the averages and percentages for the totals are computed on that basis.

Among the employees of foreign birth the highest average wages are earned by the English, followed by the Germans. The former average $695 against $576 for the latter. The remaining races follow in the order named from $486 for the North Italian, through the Lithuanian, Polish, Magyar, South Italian, and Slovak to $389 for

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