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From the preceding table it is seen that the average rent paid per month per apartment by the Magyars is higher than that of any other race-72 Magyars, or 23.6 per cent of the entire number reporting, show an average rent of $7.67 per month per apartment. Next to the Magyars are the Slovaks and Lithuanians, who pay an average rent of $6.93 and $6.21 per month, per apartment, respectively. Very little difference exists between the average rent paid by the South

Italians and the Poles.

Comparing the older immigrant races, the English and Germans, with the more recent immigrants, it will be seen that, although the average rent per month per room is higher among the more recent immigrants, the average per person is lower. The Magyars pay a higher average rent per room than do the Slovaks and Poles. The lowest average rent per person and per room of the races of recent immigration is paid by the Lithuanians. A comparison of the Lithuanians with the English shows that the Lithuanians' average rent per month per room is 2 cents higher than that of the English, while the English average a higher rent per person than do the Lithuanians. A similar comparison may be made between the North and South Italians-the former paying an average monthly rent of $1.58 per room and $1.18 per person, as compared with $1.62 per room and 97 cents per person for the South Italians. With the exception of the North Italians, whose standard of living is similar to that of the English and Germans, it may be said in general that the more recent immigrant races manifest a tendency to crowd together, due to a desire to decrease their individual rent or cost of living, as shown by the average rent per person.

The following table shows the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 516.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The total, however, is for all races.]

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None of the Magyar households pay under $5 per apartment, while 6.7 per cent pay over $12.50. The rent paid by Polish households is also comparatively high, only 11.6 per cent of this race paying under $5, and 5.8 per cent paying over $12.50. The German, North Italian, and South Italian races have all of their numbers paying under $12.50, and 23.8 per cent, 16 per cent, and 27 per cent, respectively, paying under $5.

48296°-VOL 7-11-16

The table next presented, sets forth, by general nativity and race of head of household, the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room.

TABLE 517.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The total, however, is for all races.]

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Of the total of 305 households paying rent 64.3 per cent pay less than $2, 96.1 per cent less than $3, and 3.9 per cent between $3 and $4 per month per room. From a comparison of the different races it is seen that the per cent of Magyars paying under $3 is smaller than that of any other race. No race reports a payment of over $4 per room per month. It is also interesting to note that the Germans and North Italians pay less per month per room than any other race. Although the South Italians report 2.7 per cent paying less than $1 per month, they have only 68.9 per cent paying under $2, as compared to 80 per cent of the North Italians. Of those paying between $2 and $3 the North Italians report 16 per cent, while the South Italians report 28.4 per cent. Very little difference exists between the Poles and South Italians as to the amount paid per month per room. Although the Slovaks have a smaller per cent paying under $2 than the Magyars, their entire number pay less than $3 per month per room.

Owing to the widespread use of company houses and the uniformity of rent payments for such apartments, a much better criterion as to standard of living is afforded by the rent per month per person. The average rent per month per person has already been considered, and in the following table a showing by nativity and race as to the extent or range of rent payments per month per person is made.

TABLE 518.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The total, however, is for all races.]

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Of the total number of 305 households 85.6 per cent pay less than $2, 37.4 per cent pay less than $1 per month per person, 8.8 per cent pay between $2 and $3, and 98.4 per cent pay less than $4. On comparing the Germans with races from southern and eastern Europe, 76.2 and 85.7 per cent pay under $2 and $3, respectively, the remaining 14.3 per cent paying between $3 and $4 per month per person. On the other hand, the North Italians, although 20 per cent of their number pay less than $1 and 76 per cent less than $2, report 8 per cent paying over $4 per month. Next to the North Italians are the Magyars, with 41.7 per cent paying less than $1, 79.2 per cent paying less than $2, and 1.4 per cent paying over $4 per month. The Poles report 89.9 per cent paying less than $2 and 98.6 per cent less than $3, as compared with 87.8 per cent less than $2 and 95.9 per cent less than $3, for the South Italians. The South Italians. have 1.4 per cent paying over $4 per month per person, while the entire number of Poles pay less than this amount. The Slovaks report 95.2 per cent paying less than $2, while the remaining 4.8 per cent pay between $2 and $3 per month per person.

BOARDERS AND LODGERS.

The following table shows the number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 519.-Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule, and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.]

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• Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of 309 foreign-born households studied in this locality, 59.2 per cent keep boarders or lodgers. The Slovaks, it will be noted, report the largest proportion, or 71.4 per cent, and the Germans the smallest proportion, or 23.8 per cent. Following the Slovaks, with slight differences in the proportions reported, are the Poles, Magyars, and South Italians, in the order named, the South Italians reporting 59.2 per cent. The North Italians, on the other hand, while reporting a considerably smaller proportion than the South Italians, indicate that a much larger proportion of their number keep boarders or lodgers than do the Germans.

The table following shows the average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and race of head of household. Two averages are given; the first based upon the total number of households, and the second upon only those households which have boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 520.--Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule, and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.]

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Based on the total number of households, the average number of boarders or lodgers per household is 2.06, while, if based on the total number of households keeping boarders or lodgers, the average is increased to 3.49. The Magyars report the largest, and the Germans the smallest, average number of boarders or lodgers per household, or 2.54 and 0.57, respectively. Following the Magyars, and reporting an average only slightly lower, are the Slovaks and South Italians, while, in the case of the other races, the average number of boarders or lodgers per household ranges from 2 for the Polish to 1 for the English households.

These averages are, without exception, materially increased when the number of boarders or lodgers per household is based on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers. On this basis the South Italians, with an average of 4.07, and the North Italians, with an average of 2.91, report the highest and lowest average number of boarders or lodgers per household, respectively. The Magyars, it will be noted, report a slightly lower average than the South Italians, or 3.92, while the Slovaks and Poles report an average number of boarders or lodgers per household of 3.40 and 3, respectively.

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