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If from the foregoing table the column showing the average number of rooms per household be presented with the column from Table 523, showing the average number of persons per apartment, the races having the greatest number of persons per apartment are seen to have apartments of the smaller number of rooms. This is especially notable in the case of the South Italians, Magyars, Poles, Lithuanian, and Slovak households and the general significance of the situation may be seen by a glance at the table below.

TABLE 527.—Average number of rooms per apartment and average number of persons per apartment, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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If the comparison be carried further and the average number of persons per room be compared with the average number of rooms per household the same tendencies hold good. This comparison is made in the table below.

TABLE 528.-Average number of rooms per apartment and average number of persons per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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From the above comparisons, as well as from the series of tables preceding, the existence of congestion among immigrant households, and the relative extent to which it exists among households of the different races, is apparent. The fact that the different households contain an increasingly large number of persons in the face of a decreasing number of rooms, suggests again the question as to sleeping arrangements which has already been partially answered. Additional light, however, upon this point may be obtained from the

preceding table, as well as the following comparison, showing in parallel columns, by race, the average number of sleeping rooms per household and the average number of persons per sleeping room.

TABLE 529.-Average number of sleeping rooms per apartment and average number of persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The presentation of the above averages by race simply brings into comparable form the average number of persons per sleeping room and the average number of sleeping rooms available. The point of greatest significance lies in the comparison of the average number of sleeping rooms with the average number of rooms per household and in the conclusion regarding the extent to which the rooms of the households are used for sleeping. By referring to the preceding tables it will be seen that the average number of rooms per household for all households is 3.70 and the average number of sleeping rooms 2.04, leaving an average of 1.66 rooms available for other purposes than sleeping. This showing is not so bad as it might be for it indicates that, considering all races together, there is a kitchen available which is not used for sleeping, and that in many households there may be a dining or living room independent of the sleeping rooms. On the other hand, it clearly points out also that only part and not all races have a dining or living room which is not used for sleeping. As a matter of fact, by referring to the exact percentages, it is seen that 43 per cent of all the households use all rooms except 1 for sleeping, while 3.9 per cent use all rooms for that purpose, and only 38.5 per cent of all have 2 rooms available above those used for sleeping. The conclusion is clear, therefore, that only about 38 per cent of the households have a kitchen and dining or living room not used as a sleeping room, that 43 per cent have a kitchen only, which must serve also as a dining and living room, and that about 4 per cent have neither dining, living room, nor kitchen in addition to their sleeping rooms.

If the same situation be examined by races, the best showing is made by the North Italian households of which 60 per cent have 2 rooms available in addition to the rooms used for sleeping. Of the German households 47.6 per cent also have space for a dining room or living room and kitchen besides the rooms used for sleeping, while 23.8 per cent have 1 room in addition to the sleeping rooms. The worst showing is made by the Polish households, 5.8 per cent of which use all rooms for sleeping, 65.2 per cent all rooms except 1,

and 24.6 per cent all rooms except 2. Of the Slovak households 61.9 per cent have only 1 room available for cooking, eating, and living, and 33.3 per cent of the same race have 2 rooms for these purposes. While 6.6 per cent of the South Italian households use all rooms of their apartments to sleep in and 40.8 per cent use all rooms except possibly the kitchen, 36.8 per cent of the households have 2 rooms in addition to their sleeping rooms. Only in the case of the North Italians, South Italians, Poles, and Lithuanians are the households of any race, even in small numbers, found to be sleeping in all rooms of their apartments.

CHAPTER VIII.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad-Age classification of employees and members of their households-[Text Tables 530 to 544 and General Tables 231 to 240].

LITERACY.

The general literacy of bituminous coal mine employees in the South is shown by the following table based on a detailed study of 13,043 individual mine workers.

TABLE 530.-Per cent of male employees who read and per cent who read and write, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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It is worthy of special mention, that the per cent of literate persons native-born of foreign father is much higher than that of persons native-born of native father, as well as that of the foreign-born-the first named reporting 96.5 per cent who can read and 94.7 per cent who can both read and write, as compared with 82.5 and

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