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As regards the different races it is worthy of notice that of the Germans and English who were under 14 years of age when they came to this country all are able both to read and to write, and these same races as compared with all other foreign-born persons show a greater degree of literacy in the group of 14 years of age or over at the time of their arrival. The Magyars, Slovaks, and Poles who were 14 years of age or over at the time of their coming to the United States also exhibit a relatively high proportion of literacy as compared with the South Italians and Lithuanians. The two latter races in both age groups exhibit more than 50 per cent of illiterates, and no degree of advancement in the age group under 14 as compared with the group over 14 years of age.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

As regards the conjugal condition of the coal-mining employees of the South, the tables next submitted show, by general nativity and race, the number and per cent of persons who report themselves as single, married, or widowed.

The table next presented shows the conjugal condition of the individual employees 20 years of age or over, studied in the bituminous coal mines of the South, classified according to race and general nativity.

TABLE 535.-Per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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It is seen that 64.3 per cent are married, 32.6 per cent are single, and 3.1 per cent are widowed. The proportion of married men is higher among the native-born, considered as a whole, than among the foreign-born, but lower among the persons native-born of foreign father than among either foreign-born or persons native-born of native father. The proportion of widowed is more than twice as high for the native-born as for the foreign-born.

The foreign races having the largest proportion of married men are the Scotch, English, Slovenian, Magyar and Slovak, in the order mentioned. The Scotch and English have a higher proportion of married men than have the native whites born of native father. The highest percentages of single men are reported by the Lithuanians, Montenegrins, Russians, Poles, and Croatians. The Irish have by far the largest proportion of widowed men.

It will be noted that the proportion of married men is, in general, higher among the races of old immigration than among the races of recent immigration.

The table next presented shows the proportion of male employees in each conjugal condition, by specified age groups and general nativity and race:

TABLE 536.-Per cent of male employees in each conjugal condition, by age groups and by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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father:

White...
Negro..

Foreign-born:

Bulgarian..
Croatian..
English.

1,569 49.3 49.8 1.01,488 11.9 85.5 2.6 672 2.8 89.6 7.6 3,729 26.0 71.2 2.8

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German.

21 61.9 38. 1

.0

Italian, North..

168 58.3 41.7

.0

Italian, South.

553 54.8 44.7

.5

Magyar.

Polish.

Slovak.

141 58.9 40.4
119 68.9 31. 1
148 60.8 39.2

33 15.2 78.8 6.1 97 15.5 82.5 2.1 42 14.3 85.7 .0 65 30.8 69.2 .0 129 13.2 86.0 .8j 383 15.4 83.6 1.0 .7 144 8.3 90.3 1.4 .0 137 27.0 69.3 3.6 .0 165 12.7 85.5 1.8

6 (a) (a) (a) 16 18.8 75.0 6.3 50 4.0 88.0 8.0 22 9.1 77.3 13.6 32 6.3 87.5 6.3 72 4.2 93.1 2.8 28 17.9 71. 4 10.7 20 10.0 90.0 .0 40, 10.0 85.0 5.0

313 31.9 66.1 1.9 276 43.8 54.3 1.8 353 32.6 66.0 1.4

Grand total....5, 260 55.3 43.7 1.04, 479 17.5 79.5 3.01,972 6.3 84.9 8.8 11,711 32.6 64.3 3.1

Total native-born of

foreign father.....

Total native-born.

97 69.1 30.9 .이 88 31.8 63.6 4.5 52 11.5 84.6 3.8 237 42.6 54.9 2.5 3,645 53.6 45.1 1.33,042 17.5 78.8 3.71,548 5.5 85.1 9.4 8,235 31.2 65.1 3.7 Total foreign-born.... 1, 615 59.3 40.3 41, 437 17.5 81.0 1.5 424 9.4 84.0 6.6 3,476 35.9 62.5 1.6

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

In all, 5,260 employees are reported from 20 to 29 years of age. Of these, 43.7 per cent are married. The proportion of married men is for those who were native-born of foreign father, 30.9 per cent; for all the native-born, 45.1 per cent; and for all the foreign-born, 40.3

per cent. The races having the largest proportion of married men are, in the order mentioned, the English, Bulgarian, American white, and South Italian; those having the smallest proportion, the Polish and Croatian. For the English the figure is 63.2 per cent; for the Poles it is 31.1 per cent.

There were reported 4,479 employees from 30 to 44 years of age. Of these, 79.5 per cent were married. The proportion of married men is, for the persons native-born of foreign father, 63.6 per cent; for all the native-born, 78.8 per cent; and for all the foreign-born, 81 per cent. The races having the largest proportion of married men are, in the order mentioned, the Magyar, North Italian, and English; those having the smallest proportion are the German, Polish, Bulgarian, and American negro. For the Magyars the figure is 90.3 per cent; for the Germans, 69.2 per cent.

A total of 1,972 employees 45 years of age or over furnished information. Of these, 84.9 per cent are married. The proportion of married men is, for the persons native-born of foreign father, 84.6 per cent; for all the native-born, 85.1 per cent; and for all the foreignborn, 84 per cent. The races having the largest proportion of married men are the South Italians and Poles; those having the smallest proportion, the Magyars, Croatians, and Germans.

As might be expected, the proportion of married men increases with the age of the group. This is true, not only of the employees as a whole and of the native and foreign born, but of all or nearly all of the races. There is, however, as will be noted, a pronounced difference in the rate of increase for the different races.

The table immediately following makes a comparison of the races with regard to the conjugal condition of individuals in the households studied, by sex and age.

TABLE 537.-Per cent of persons in each conjugal condition, by sex and age groups, and by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races

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TABLE 537.-Per cent of persons in each conjugal condition, by sex and age groups, and by general nativity and race of individual-Continued.

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Of the 891 foreign-born males 20 years of age or over 40.5 per cent are single, 58.2 per cent are married, and 1.2 per cent are widowed. The Slovaks show the highest percentage of married persons, their showing being 72.9 per cent. The Magyars also show a percentage of married persons largely in excess of the single, 68.8 per cent of this race being thus reported. The South Italian and Polish males report considerably higher percentages of single persons than do the other races, the former showing 46.2 per cent single, 53.5 per cent married, and 0.4 per cent widowed, and the latter 41.1 per cent single, 58.3 per cent married, and 0.6 per cent widowed.

All the South Italians are married, as are 95.5 per cent of the Magyars, the one exception in the case of the last named race being a widower.

Of the foreign-born males between 30 and 45 years of age 82.6 per cent are married, 15.5 per cent are single, and 1.9 per cent are widowed. The Slovaks show 90.9 per cent married and 9.1 per cent single. One of the Poles is widowed and 6 are single, the remaining 91.1 per cent being married. The South Italians show a greater proportion single than do the other races; 14.7 per cent of them are reported unmarried, 84.4 per cent married, and 0.9 per cent widowed.

Of the younger men, 20 to 29 years of age, the greater proportion are unmarried, this percentage being 71.9 per cent as compared with 27.8 per cent married and 0.2 per cent widowed. Among the four races under discussion the South Italians show the largest percentage of single men and the Magyars the lowest. Their percentages are 74.3 and 66.2, respectively, the Poles, with 70.2 per cent single, and Slovaks, with 72.2 per cent, ranking between the two first mentioned races. There are no widowers among the young men of these four

races.

In its bearing upon the general character of the immigrant labor supply the location of the wives of the foreign-born employees is probably of greater importance than the general conjugal condition of the foreign-born mine workers. As regards this point, the tables next submitted are designed to show for each race and for certain groups made upon a basis of residence, what proportion of the married employees of foreign birth have their wives in this country or abroad.

TABLE 538.-Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife in the United States and per cent who report wife abroad, by race of husband.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more husbands reporting. The total, however, is for all foreignborn.]

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TABLE 539.-Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad, by race of husband and by years husband has been in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more husbands reporting.]

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