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The preceding tables show that the northern European races, such as the English, French, and German, lead in the proportion of married men with wives located in this country. The races reporting the smaller numbers of those whose wives are with them are the Bulgarian, and Croatian. Of the races reporting, 8 have over 50 per cent of their men with wives in this country, and who are presumably maintaining established conditions of family life in the United States in the coal-mining localities.

Among those who have been in this country ten years or over, the South Italians have the greatest proportion of persons whose wives are abroad, and the North Italians the lowest, though but four races are thus classified. Among those who have been in the United States under 5 years, all four races reporting show that about two-thirds of the married men have their wives abroad.

VISITS ABROAD.

An indication of the stability of the immigrant labor employed in a given industry and district is furnished in considerable measure by the tendency exhibited by the men of each race to visit their native land. The following table shows, by period of residence in the United States and race of individual, what proportion of the foreign-born males reporting from the bituminous mines of the South have made visits abroad since coming to this country. The first general division of the following table shows, by period of residence in the United States, the number of persons reporting this information; the second division makes the same showing by percentages.

TABLE 540.- Visits abroad made by foreign-born male employees, by years in the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the total number of 3,368 individuals reporting, 1,618 have been in the United States under five years, and of these 9.4 per cent have made visits abroad; 1,074 have been in the United States from five to nine years, and 26.8 per cent of that number have made visits abroad. Of the number who have been in the United States for ten years or more,

30.2 per cent have made visits abroad. It will be noticed that the proportion of those who have made visits abroad increases with years of residence in the United States. The grand total shows that 19.1 per cent of the persons reporting have made visits to their native lands.

The North Italians show the largest proportion of those reporting who have made visits abroad. Of this race, 145 persons are reported to have been in the United States under five years, and 16.6 per cent of that number have made visits abroad. Of the total number of 104 persons of English birth who reported this information, 25 per cent have made visits abroad. The race reporting in largest numbers is the South Italian. A total of 1,022 persons reported, of whom 471 have been in the United States under five years, 409 from five to nine years, and 142 for ten or more years. Of those who have been in this country under five years, 12.1 per cent have made visits abroad; of those here from five to nine years, 30.3 per cent have made visits abroad; and of those who have been in the United States for ten or more years, 33.1 per cent have made visits abroad. It will be noticed that in the case of this race, as with many others, the proportion of those who have made visits abroad increases with length of residence in this country.

The table next submitted shows the number of mine workers in West Virginia who are of foreign birth and who have made one or more visits abroad. The relation between period of residence and visits to native land is also exhibited.

TABLE 541.- Visits abroad made by foreign-born male employees in West Virginia, by years in the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]

Number report

In United States under 5 years. In United States 5 to 9 years. In United States 10 years or over.

Number reporting

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Of the 2,551 employees covered by the preceding table 2,012, or 78.9 per cent, have not visited their native countries since coming to the United States. Some 423, or 16.6 per cent of the total number, have made a single trip, 86, or 3.4 per cent, two trips, and 30, or 1.2 of 1 per cent, three or more trips.

The races are, in the order of their numerical importance, the South Italian, the Magyar, the North Italian, the Slovak, the Croatian, the Polish, the German, and the English. Analyzing the figures for each of these races in turn, it appears that of South Italians, 75.5 per cent have not visited their native land since coming to the United States. Of the total, 19.2 per cent have made one visit, 3.6 per cent two visits, and 1.6 per cent three or more visits. For the Magyars, the percentage of visits is lower. Of this race 78.2 per cent of the men have not made trips abroad, 17.4 per cent one trip, 3 per cent two trips, and 1.3 per cent three or more trips. Of the North Italians, 70.1 per cent have not revisited Italy, 23.7 per cent have made one visit, 5.5 per cent two visits, and 0.7 per cent three or more visits. Of the Slovaks, about 80.2 per cent have never been abroad since landing in the United States, 14.7 per cent have made one trip, 4.3 per cent two trips, and 0.7 per cent three or more trips. Of the Croatians, 83.5 per cent have never visited their native land, 15.3 per cent have been abroad once, 0.8 per cent twice, and 0.4 per cent three or more times. Of the Poles, 7.7 per cent have made one trip and 2.9 per cent two trips, and 89.5 per cent have not been abroad since coming to the United States. None of the men of this race have made more than two visits to their native country and the same is true of the Germans, who follow next in the order of numerical importance. About 92 per cent of the Germans have never revisited Germany, 6 per cent have made one visit only, and 1.5 per cent two visits. Of the English, 76.6 per cent have not been abroad, 14.8 per cent have made one visit, 2.1 per cent two visits, and 6.4 per cent three or more visits.

The races reporting employees who have made no visits to their native lands are, in descending order of percentages, the German, Polish, Croatian, Slovak, Magyar, English, South Italian, and North Italian. In the percentage of those who have made one visit only abroad, the North Italians lead, with the South Italians and the Magyars in second and third places, respectively. The Croatians, the English, and the Slovaks all report approximately the same proportion of single visits, while the Poles and the Germans occupy the seventh and eighth places. The North Italians rank first also in the proportion of their number who have made two visits abroad. Slovaks, South Italians, Magyars, Poles, English, Germans, and Croatians follow in the order mentioned. In the proportion of employees who have made three or more visits abroad, the English far outrank the other races, with a percentage of 6.4. The percentage most nearly approaching this is that reported for the South Italians, 1.6 per cent. The Magyars follow with 1.3 per cent, the North Italians and Slovaks 0.7 per cent each, and the Croatians 0.4 per cent. As has already been stated, no Germans or Poles have made more than two visits abroad. The figures and statements just given relate to all the employees, irrespective of years of residence in the United

States. The percentages are, therefore, to a certain extent, lacking in significance. In order to determine the tendency on the part of the men of different races to pay visits abroad, the relation must be known between the average number of their visits and their average residence in the United States. Data upon this point are also given in the above table, length of residence being shown by five-year periods.

Of the 2,551 employees reported, 1,176, or 46.1 per cent, have been in the country less than five years; 939, or 36.8 per cent, between five and ten years; and 436, or 17.1 per cent, ten years or over. It is interesting to compare the percentages of visits for each of these groups with those for the total, and those for each of the other groups. This is done in the following table:

TABLE 542.-Per cent of foreign-born mine employees in West Virginia making visits abroad, by years in the United States.

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It will be noted that the percentage of employees who have made no visits abroad is larger for persons in the United States less than five years than for the entire number of employees or for those in the United States for a longer period than five years. In the column in which these figures appear the proportion of those who have made no visits as a rule decreases with length of residence. Of the employees who have made one visit abroad 10.5 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 22.7 per cent between five and ten years, 19.7 per cent ten years or over, while 16.6 per cent of the total employees have made one visit to their native land. For employees who have made two visits the figures are as follows: In the United States under five years, 0.9 per cent; all employees, 3.4 per cent; in the United States five to ten years, 4.6 per cent; in the United States ten years or over, 7.6 per cent.

Of the employees who have been in the United States under five years, 0.3 per cent and 0.9 per cent of those who have been here between five and ten years, as well as 1.2 per cent of all employees, and 4.1 per cent of those who have been in the country ten years or over have made three or more visits to their native land.

Considered as a whole, the figures of the table seem to indicate about what a more comprehensive tabulation might be expected to show. With few exceptions, both the relative number of employees visiting their native countries and the number of visits for each thousand men employed increase with length of residence in this country.

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