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AGE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

For the purpose of showing the ages of all foreign-born persons in the households studied in connection with this industry in the South, the following series of tables is herewith presented. The first of this series shows the per cent of persons in each specified age group, by sex and general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 543.-Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total. however, is for all races.] MALE.

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The fact that the largest proportion of foreign-born males in the South for whom information was secured are of working age is evidenced by the above table, 70.1 per cent being 20 years of age or over, as compared with 23.1 per cent under 16. Sixty-four and nine tenths per cent are from 20 to 44 years of age. Of those under 6 years of age, the Poles show the largest proportion, or 19.9 per cent, and the Slovaks, with 8.9 per cent, the smallest. In the second age group, or of those from 6 to 13 years of age, the Germans, with 18.8 per cent, show the largest proportions, the other races ranging from 10.2 per cent of the Magyars to 3.5 per cent of the North Italians. Of those

from 20 to 29, and of those from 30 to 44 years of age, the South Italians show the largest proportion, or 41.1 per cent, in the first group and the smallest, or 30.3 per cent, in the second group. The smallest proportion, 25 per cent, in the first group is shown by the Germans, while the largest, 40 per cent, in the second group is shown by the Slovaks. The proportions of the several races in the other age groups vary so little that a comparison is not considered necessary. Of the 518 females furnishing information, 43.8 per cent are under 16 years of age, and 24.9 and 23.4 per cent are shown in the age groups from 20 to 29 and 30 to 44 years of age, respectively. The most interesting feature of the above tables is the large number of Slovaks under 6 years of age, as compared with the number of those of that age in the other races. The foreign-born as a whole show 17.7 per cent of their number in this age group. The largest proportion of South Italians and Poles is found in the age group of 20 to 29 years, and of the Magyars in the group from 30 to 44 years of age.

The following table shows the per cent of male employees within each age group, by general nativity and race:

TABLE 544.-Per cent of male employees within each age group, by general nativity and

race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the 13,375 male employees shown in the preceding table, the greatest proportion in any one age group are from 20 to 24 years old. The next largest proportion are from 25 to 29 years of age, while slightly less than half are 30 years of age or over. It is noticeable

that a very small proportion are 55 years of age or over.

The table shows that the employees who are native-born of foreign father show the highest per cent of persons under 30 years of age, followed by the foreign-born employees and the negroes. Of the employees who are from 30 to 54 years of age those of foreign birth and those who are native-born whites of native father show the same proportions, closely followed by the negroes, while the per cent of employees who are native-born of foreign father in these groups is considerably smaller than that shown for the other nativity groups.

Of the employees who are 55 years of age or over there is little difference between the proportions in each nativity group. Of the employees who are native-born of foreign father those whose fathers were born in England show the highest per cent who are from 14 to 29 years of age and those whose fathers were born in Ireland the highest per cent who are from 30 to 55 years of age or over.

Of the foreign-born employees, the North Italians alone show a small proportion who are under 14 years of age and the highest per cent who are from 14 to 19; no Lithuanians are included in this age group. It is noticeable in the groups including persons from 20 to 24 years of age and 25 to 29 years of age, that the English, Irish, Scotch, and Germans generally show smaller proportions than the more recently arrived immigrant employees.

48296°-VOL 7-11-18

CHAPTER IX.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes-Status of children in the households studied-Citizenship in the South-Citizenship in West Virginia-Ability to speak English-[Text Tables 545 to 556 and General Tables 241 to 249].

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

The proportion of the families of a given group of workmen who live in homes owned by themselves may fairly be regarded as an indication, at least, of the social and industrial progress of the group. It also seems probable that unless they intend to reside permanently in the United States the members of an immigrant family will not, in the majority of instances, purchase property of such an immovable character as a dwelling house. The statistics of the ownership of homes on the part of immigrant races may, therefore, be considered of value as showing the permanency of the immigrant population. In this connection, however, it must be borne in mind that the opportunities of mine workers to acquire homes are limited as compared with employees of other industries. Data relative to the ownership of homes have been secured from the families studied. In the following table the figures are given, by race of head of household, for employees in the coal and coke industries of the South.

TABLE 545.-Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.
Not including 1 family not reporting complete data.

Of the total number of 281 families furnishing information for the above table, only three are reported as owning homes. Of these three, two are of the Magyar and one of the South Italian race.

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