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is obvious, therefore, that the percentage of ownership is too small to serve as a basis of comparison between the standards of the different races. The figures do, however, point strongly to the conclusion that the ownership of property is not general among the immigrant mine workers of the district covered by these data. The fact that only a negligible proportion of the employees live in homes owned by themselves would seem to indicate either unfavorable conditions of employment, lack of disposition to save, an intention of merely temporary residence, or a combination of these factors in varying proportions.

It is important to recall, however, that in the Pennsylvania coal and coke focalities the percentage of families owning homes is perceptibly larger than in the South; that in the Southwest it is much larger than in Pennsylvania; and in the coal mines of the Middle West the employees make a better showing than in any other region. The above statement is true not only of the employees as a whole but, in general, of the very races present in the coal mines of the South. This being the case, and for the additional reason that it is not likely that the individuals of a given race settled in different sections of the country would differ widely in their tendency to save or to make the United States their permanent place of residence, the probabilities would appear to favor the inference that the extremely low percentage of ownership of homes reported for the South is due to relatively unfavorable conditions of employment.

STATUS OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows the children 6 and under 16 years of age in the households studied in the South who were at home, at school, and at work:

TABLE 546.-Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more children born abroad ]

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Among the Magyars, the only race with enough children of foreignborn fathers to be considered, it is seen that similar percentages of the native-born children and of the foreign-born children of this race are at work, although a much larger percentage of the native-born children are at school than of the foreign-born.

CITIZENSHIP IN THE SOUTH.

The following table shows the present political condition of foreignborn males who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

TABLE 547.-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]

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It appears from the data presented in the above table that 17.4 per cent of the foreign-born males for whom information was secured are fully naturalized and that 10.2 per cent have first papers only. The proportion of individuals fully naturalized is very much larger for the English than for any other of the races for which percentages have been computed and larger for the North Italians and Slovaks than for the South Italians, Poles, and Magyars. The English have by far the largest and the Poles and South Italians have the smallest proportion of individuals having first papers only.

The following table shows the political condition in the southern coal fields of individual employees of foreign birth who were 21 years of age at the time of their arrival, by general nativity and race, and by period of residence in this country:

TABLE 548.-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in the United States and

race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The above table, which gives information from 1,067 employees who have been in the United States five years or over, discloses the fact that 17.4 per cent are fully naturalized and 10.2 per cent have first papers only. Of the 1,067 mine workers who reported, 670 have been in the United States between five and nine years, and report 2.7 per cent fully naturalized and 8.1 per cent as having first papers only. On the other hand, the 397 employees who have been in the United States ten years or over report 43.2 per cent fully naturalized and 13.9 per cent with first papers only.

It is interesting to note also that the North Italians, South Italians, and Slovaks are the only races, with a residence in the United States of between five and nine years, who report a percentage of their number as fully naturalized, the North Italians reporting 9.8 per cent, South Italians 2.7 per cent, and Slovaks 1.2 per cent. Eight and four-tenths per cent of the Slovaks, 6.3 per cent of the South Italians, 5 per cent of the Magyars, 3.3 per cent of the North Italians, and 3 per cent of the Poles have secured first papers only.

Of those who have been in the United States ten years or over, the North Italians show by far the largest per cent fully naturalized, reporting 32 per cent. The North Italians also report 24 per cent, as having first papers only. The Slovaks report 31 per cent fully naturalized and 9.5 per cent with first papers only, as compared with 27.2 per cent and 10.9 per cent, respectively, of the South Italians. It is also apparent from the above table that, of the entire number who have been in the United States five years or over, the North Italians have shown a stronger desire to become citizens than any other race, with the Slovaks next, and the South Italians and Magyars following in the order named.

The tendencies exhibited by the foreign-born toward the acquirement of citizenship are set forth in the following table, which shows the present political condition of foreign-born males in the households studied, who have been in the United States five years or over, and who were 21 years of age or over at time of arrival, by race of individual:

TABLE 549.--Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]

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That little interest in American institutions is manifested by the foreign-born males in this locality is apparent from the very small proportion of those who have acquired full citizenship, and the still smaller proportion of those who have secured first papers only. Since only four races show a sufficient number of representatives to allow of computation, definite conclusions as to the relative standing of the races are precluded; however, it will be noted that, of these races whose percentages have been computed, the Slovaks show a larger proportion of persons fully naturalized, as well as of those with first papers only, than the Magyars and Poles, and much larger proportions than the South Italians."

CITIZENSHIP IN WEST VIRGINIA.

An individual study of 862 foreign-born miners in the West Virginia coal fields shows the following political condition among foreignborn males who had reached manhood before leaving their native land and who have resided five years or more in the United States:

TABLE 550.-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees in West Virginia who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race and length of residence.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]

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A very small degree of progress toward citizenship is disclosed by the above table. Of the total number, 683, or 79.2 per cent, were aliens and only 69, or 8 per cent, had signified any inclination to become citizens by securing first papers. Twelve and eight-tenths per cent. were fully naturalized, this small group being mainly composed of the majority of the Germans, English, Scotch, and Irish, with a few North and South Italians. It is significant also that none of the Croatians had even first papers, and only one Russian and one Lithuanian had attained to citizenship. The Poles and Slovaks were below the general average for all races, 7.3 per cent of the former and 10.1 per cent of the latter being fully naturalized. The North Italians were above the average, with 15.7 per cent naturalized. Only 4 per cent of Magyars and 9.9 per cent of South Italians had second papers.

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