Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

Germans, Mexicans, Scotch, and Slovenians have 100 per cent earning $1.25 per day and over; the same races have the highest percentages earning $1.50 per day and over. Of races earning $2 per day and over Germans, Mexicans, Scotch, and Slovenians still lead; those showing the highest percentage earning $2.50 per day and over are North Italians, Irish, South Italians, Scotch, and French; those having the largest representation earning $3 per day and over are Lithuanians, South Italians, Germans, and Polish, while Lithuanians, South Italians, and Germans have the largest number earning $3.50 per day and over.

The table shows there are more men in the class earning between $2.50 and $3 than any other, due to the fact that a large number are day or company men, whose wage is $2.56 per eight hours' work.

În connection with the earnings of adults in the coal mines of the Southwest, it will also be of interest to note the number and per cent of employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning, each specified amount per day. In the following table the showing is made for 277 mine employees within these age limits, of whom 64 are foreign-born and 213 are native-born. TABLE 405.—Per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified

amount per day, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

[blocks in formation]

* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Upon comparing the relative proportions earning specified amounts in the table above it is seen that about equal percentages of the total native-born, the total foreign-born, and the total native-born of foreign father are earning $1.25 or over per day. This proportion in exact percentages is 74.4 per cent for the native white of native father, 74.6 per cent for the total native-born of foreign father, 73.7 per cent for the total native-born, and 73.4 per cent for the total foreign-born. In the $1.50 wage classification the relative proportions for the groups are about the same, but they differ for those earning $2 or over and $2.50 or over per day. More than one-half of each group earn $2 or over per day. Thirty-eight and fourtenths per cent of the American white, 55.3 per cent of the second generation, and 62.5 per cent of the foreign-born are engaged in work for which they receive $2.50 or over per day, a wage equivalent to that received by many employees in the industry who are of a more

advanced age.

RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

As regards the effect of an extended residence upon progress in the industry or earning ability, the following tables show the per cent of individual mine workers of foreign birth earning each specified amount per day, according to number of years in the United States. In the first tabulation the races are arranged alphabetically with the different periods of residence under each race; in the second tabulation, the same figures are arranged, by race, under different periods of residence. Table 406.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day, by race and length of residence in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)

[blocks in formation]

*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdows or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Table 407.--Comparative earnings per day of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age

or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)
IN UNITED STATES LESS THAN 5 YEARS.

[blocks in formation]

1.9

English.
French.
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Polish...

24 52 404 165 81

100.0
96. 2
98.0
97.6
92.6

100.0
94. 2
98.0
97.6
91.4

95. 8
94. 2
96.5
95. 8
61.7

87.5 90.4 93. 6 90.3 55. 6

20.8

5.8 12.9 30. 3 21.0

3. 2 17.6 1. 2

* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual varnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

TABLE 407.- Comparative earnings per day of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age

or over, by race and length of residence in the United States--Continued.

[blocks in formation]

South Italians show the highest earning capacity of any of the races in the above table. Of those who have been in the United States under five years 17.6 per cent earn $3.50 or over per day, as do 38.1 per cent of those who have been in this country from five to nine years and 24.7 per cent of those with a residence of ten years or over. The English are the next highest wage-earners, 8.3 per cent of those here under five years, 9.1 per cent between five and nine years, and 8.4 per cent ten years or over, earning $3.50 or over per day. The French show the lowest percentage of high earnings, only 1.9 per cent of those in the United States under five years, 4.1 per cent from five to nine years, and 2.9 per cent ten years or over, earning $3.50 or over per day.

All immigrants who have been in the United States over five years show a better earning capacity than those who have been in this country for a shorter period of time. It is particularly noticeable that the English, French, and South Italians who have been in the United States between five and nine years show a slightly higher earning capacity than those who have a residence of ten years or over. This is accounted for by the fact that many with a residence of over ten years are old men and are not physically able to make the wage of the younger immigrants. Further, it is stated that the older immigrants have saved money out of earnings in the past years, and it is unnecessary for them to work as hard as the more recent immigrants. The reason assigned for the large percentage earning higher wages among those who have been in this country between five and nine years as compared with the same wage class of more recent immigrants is that those who have been here only a few years are not highly skilled miners, and consequently are not able to produce as large an amount of coal as those who have become proficient in the work by several years' experience.

There is little difference in the earning capacity of English who have been in this country under five years and those who have been here between five and nine years; this is on account of their having been experienced miners before coming to the United States, which is not generally the case with other races.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

An indication of the industriousness of a given race may be found in the percentage of heads of families regularly employed. Data upon this subject relating to the coal and coke workers of Kansas and Oklahoma are shown in the following table, together with average annual earnings of heads of families engaged in bituminous mining.

TABLE 408.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

[blocks in formation]

The total number of families is 418 and the total number of husbands 408. It will be noted that all the husbands are reported as at work. The figures of the table speak well, therefore, for the industry and ability to secure and retain work of all the employees having family responsibilities.

The highest average annual earnings of male heads of families is exhibited by the Welsh employees, whose average yearly earnings are $656, followed by the Lithuanians, Irish, South Italians, Poles, North Italians, Croatians, Mexicans, and Slovaks, in the order named.

As regards the range of annual earnings, the following table shows the proportion of husbands earning each specified amount: TABLE 409.-Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of

individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see p. 284.)

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

a Not computed, owing to small number involved. In the foregoing table 39 native whites show an average of $583, 24 negroes $384, and 345 foreign-born an average of $451. The average yearly earnings of the negro race are so much lower than the native whites that it is considered advisable, for the purpose of comparing the foreign with the native born, to consider the native whites and negroes separately. Of the negroes, 66.7 per cent report average yearly earnings under $400, while the other 33.3 per cent average between $400 and $600.

Of the total foreign-born, 44.1 per cent average under $400, as against 49.2 per cent native-born. Fifteen and four-tenths per cent native whites average $1,000 or over, while only 2.3 per cent of the foreign-born average as much as that. Forty-two and three-tenths per cent of the foreign-born report average yearly earnings between $400 and $600, and 10.1 per cent between $600 and $800, while the native whites show 23 per cent and 20.6 per cent, respectively.

Although the Lithuanians have only 3.1 per cent of their number averaging under $400, the per cent averaging under $600 is 65.6. Next to the Lithuanians, the South Italians report a smaller per cent (18.8) than any other race averaging under $400; at the same time they have 96.9 per cent with average earnings under $600.

Of all races reporting from this district, the Slovaks have the lowest average earnings, $380, with 64.4 per cent of their number earning under $400.

The Poles report 2.9 per cent of their number averaging over $800. They and the Welsh, Irish, and Lithuanians are the only foreignborn with average yearly earnings over this amount.

« AnteriorContinuar »