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The average earnings of the foreign-born in this field are somewhat higher than in Pennsylvania and the Middle West, but not so high as in the South.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows the approximate annual earnings of all males 18 years of age or over in the households studied, by general nativity and race of individual: TABLE 410.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

General nativity and race of individual.

Number
Number earning-

Per cent earning-
working
for wages Average
and re- earnings. Under Under Under Under Under Under Under Under
porting
$200. $400. $600. $1,000. $200. $400.

$600. $1,000. amount.

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Native-born of native father:

White.

Negro. Native-born of foreign father, by race of lather:

Irish. Lithuanian. Magyar. Slovak.

Welsh.
Foreign-born:

Croatian
Irish.
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Mexican..
Polish..
Slovak.
Spanish.
Welsh.

Grand total....

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NN

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406 532 411 438 549 405 379 453

366 (0)

624

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13 14 90 11 27 10 39 23 34

1 11

1 1 3 3

22 43 163 45 65 17 57 47 52

2 25

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1.8 6.3 5.8 (b) 6.9

2

675

448

28

351

598

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52.0

97.6

88.6

Total native-born of for

eign father. Total native-born. Total foreign-born.

32 127 548

429 451 447

4 13 15

18 78 273

25 103 495

32 121 538

12.5
10.2
2.7

56.3
61.4
49.9

78.1
81.1
90.3

100.0
95.3
98.2

a See Table 41, Vol. I, p. 66.
• Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the 675 males reporting information for the preceding table, 65 are native-born whites of native father, 32 are native-born of foreign father, and 548 are foreign-born. The remaining 30 are native-born negroes.

The average annual earnings of all reporting are $448. The American whites average $496 yearly, while the native-born of foreign father average $429 and the foreign-born $447. The average earnings of the negroes are only $377.

Of the foreign-born the Welsh have the highest average earnings, with $624. The Lithuanians and Irish follow with $549 and $532, respectively. The Slovaks, with $366, show the lowest average earnings. The Croatians, the North Italians, the South Italians, the Magyars, and the Mexicans are below the general average.

Of all reporting, 4.1 per cent earn less than $200, 52 per cent less than $400, 88.6 per cent less than $600, and 97.6 per cent less than $1,000.

On comparing those earning less than $200 it is seen that the foreign-born have the smallest per cent in this class. Only 2.7 per cent of the foreign-born earn less than $200, while 12.3 per cent of the whites native-born of native father earn less than this amount.

Of the foreign-born, the Welsh, while showing the highest average earnings, also have the largest per cent of any of the races earning less than $200; this is, however, offset by their relatively large per cent earning $1,000 or more. The Croatian and the Lithuanian races report none of their number earning less than $200.

The negroes have the largest per cent earning under $400. The Mexicans come next. The South Italians have the smallest per cent with earnings under $400. In this class the American whites have nearly twice as high a per cent as have the South Italians. The Irish, the Lithuanians, and the Welsh also make a better showing than the American whites.

None of the Croatians or negroes earn $600, while 48.3 per cent of the Welsh and 37 per cent of the Irish earn as much as or more than this figure. The American whites and the Poles are also above the average in this group. The Lithuanians, while ranking second in average earnings, have only 4.5 per cent earning $600.

The negroes, the foreign-born Croatians, North and South Italians, Mexicans and Slovaks, and the native-born of foreign father a class, report no one earning $1,000.

a

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the annual average and range of family income. TABLE 411.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by

general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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From the above table, based upon reports from 418 families, it will be seen that, of this number, 52.2 per cent have a total income under $500—the whites native-born of native father having 43.6 per cent of their families, and the foreign-born having 51.5 per cent, earning under this amount. Only 14.3 per cent of the Irish families report a total income under $500, while 14.3 per cent earn over $1,500. The Welsh, although 19.2 per cent of their families earn less than $500, as compared with 12.5 per cent of the Lithuanian families, have only 53.8 per cent earning under $750, as against 62.5 per cent Lithuanians; also, the Welsh report 7.7 per cent of their families with total incomes of over $1,500, while the Lithuanians report only 3.1 per cent with such incomes.

There is very little difference in the family income of the Mexicans and the native-born. Although the Mexicans report a smaller per cent with total income under $500 than do the negroes, the Mexicans show a slightly larger per cent with total family income under $750. Both of these races report a small per cent with incomes over $1,000, but none with incomes over $1,500.

The average family income of the South Italians is slightly higher than that of the North Italians or the Poles. The Poles, however, report a smaller per cent with total incomes less than $750 than either the North or South Italians, 82.9 per cent of the Poles reporting an average income less than $750, as compared with 84.4 per cent of the South Italians and 85.3 of the North Italians. The Croatians report 81 per cent of their number with total incomes under $500 and 95.2 per cent under $750. Their average income is the lowest reported. The average income of the households whose heads are native whites of native father is exceeded by that of three races—the Irish, Welsh, and Lithuanian.

WIVES AT WORK.

The question next presents itself as to whether any family income is derived from sources other than the earnings of the heads of families in the coal mines. In partial answer to this question, the following table is submitted, which is designed to show the tendency on the part of the wives of mine workers of the Southwest to engage in gainful occupations:

TABLE 412.-Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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The number of families is 418, and the number of wives the same. The table shows 3 wives of negroes and the wife of a Slovak to have been engaged in gainful occupations. The occupations of boarding house or lodging-house keepers have not been considered gainful occupations for purposes of this table. The 4 women reported as at work were employed either in their own homes as washerwomen, or at hotels. None of them was regularly out in domestic service. One of the distinctive features of the coal-mining industry is the fact that in the great majority of cases the employees are compelled by the very nature of their work to live in small and isolated communities. Coal mines are seldom located in or near considerable towns. Mine work can be done only by men. The manufacturing establishments of the cities and towns which employ so large a number of immigrant women are too far distant to be accessible to the wives of the mine workers. For those remaining in the home domestic service is in general the only alternative. All the coalmining communities of Kansas and Oklahoma, from which the data for the table were secured, were of the type described above. Consequently this small percentage of employment is mainly due to lack of opportunities.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows the approximate earnings of all females 18 years of age or over in the households studied, working for wages, by general nativity and race of individual: Table 413.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Because of the very small number reporting, no opportunity for a comparison of the approximate earnings of the several races is afforded by the preceding table. It will be seen, however, that for the entire number furnishing information the average yearly earnings per female amount to $235. It is interesting to note in connection with those earning specified amounts that an even 50 per cent of those reporting average less than $200, and that the entire 100 per cent average less than $500. The average earnings of the native-born, of native or foreign father, are reported as $229, indicating, in view of the average reported for the total number, that the average earnings of the foreign-born are in excess of the earnings of the nativeborn.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE

OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

The relation between the earnings of the husbands and the practice of the wives of keeping boarders or lodgers is considered in the tables next presented.

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