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Table 414.-Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers,

by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

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. For selection of families, see p. 284. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.

Table 415.Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals however are for all races.

For selection of families, see p. 284. of the selected families, only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.)

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A. glance at the preceding table shows that the Welsh and Croatians are the only races, of all reporting, whose wives have not, either by employment or the keeping of boarders or lodgers, had any part in increasing the earnings of their husbands.

Of the foreign-born races, the Slovaks and Irish each report two wives who have added to the earnings of their husbands by one or both of the above methods, which places these two races in the same class as the native whites, who also report 2 of their wives, or 5.1 per cent, as supplementing the family income.

The largest number of wives aiding in increasing the husbands' earnings, are found among the Lithuanians, who report 62.5 per cent. Following the Lithuanians are the Poles and the North and South Italians, with 31.4, 28.2, and 21.9 per cent, respectively so reported.

A larger per cent of the wives of Mexicans than of native-born negroes aid in increasing their husbands' earnings, the Mexicans reporting 18.4 per cent, and the negroes 16.7 per cent.

The natural supposition would be that the lower the earnings of the husband, the larger would be the per cent of wives keeping boarders or lodgers, or seeking other employment. This, however, is not the case, as is apparent from the above tables. The striking exception to the above statement is in the case of the Lithuanians. It is also noticeable, but to a lesser extent, with the North and South Italians.

Only one Lithuanian is reported as earning under $400, and his wife adds to his earnings by keeping boarders or lodgers, while 65 per cent of the wives of Lithuanians earning between $400 and $600, and 54.5 per cent of the wives of those earning $600 or over, contribute to the family income.

The North Italians earning under $400 and between $400 and $600 are aided by 24.2 and 31.4 per cent of their wives, respectively, as compared with 16.7 and 24 per cent of the wives of South Italians, on the same basis of husbands' earnings.

Only 11.8 per cent of the wives of Poles whose husbands earn less than $400, as compared with 50 per cent of those whose husbands earn between $400 and $600, add to the husbands' earnings.

It will be readily seen, therefore, that although 44.9 per cent of the husbands of the 408 families reporting earn less than $400, only 9.3 per cent of the wives in this class add to the husbands' earnings, as compared with 28.2 per cent of the wives of husbands earning between $400 and $600, the husbands earning between the lastnamed amounts representing 40 per cent of the entire number of families from whom information was secured.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

In addition to the activities of the wives in contributing to the family income, the next table presented exhibits the extent to which the families studied have an income from other sources.

TABLE 416.--Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife,

children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the 418 families from whom information was secured, a greater proportion derive income from the earnings of husband than from all other sources combined. Upon the information secured, it is found that 97.6 per cent of the families derive income from husband's earnings, 18.9 per cent from boarders or lodgers, 16.3 per cent of the families receive contributions from the children, 1 per cent from earnings of wife, and 37.1 per cent from sources other than those just enumerated. One hundred per cent of the native-born families reporting have an income from husband's earnings, as compared with 97.2 per cent of the foreign-born. The native-born also report a greater proportion of families who derive income from wife's earnings than do the foreignborn. On the other hand, the foreign-born report a larger proportion of families having an income from children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources than do the native-born.

Of the foreign-born, the Irish, South Italians, Lithuanians, Poles, and Slovaks each report 100 per cent of the families deriving an income from husband's earnings: while the Croatians, North Italians, and Mexicans each report over 90 per cent. The Welsh report 84.6 per cent of the families as having income from husband's earnings.

The native-born negroes and the Slovaks are the only races reporting an income from wife's earnings, and in each case the proportion is small, being but 12.5 per cent of the negro families and 2.2 per cent

of the Slovak families. All of the races, however, show contributions from children. The Welsh stand first in this respect, with 50 per cent of the families receiving contributions from children, but this race is followed closely by the Irish, who report 48.6 per cent. The proportion of Slovak families receiving contributions from children is 11.1 per cent. The Mexicans, South Italians, Lithuanians, North Italians, Poles, and Croatians follow in the order named. The proportion of American white families receiving contributions from children is 17.9 per cent, as compared with 12.5 per cent of the negro families.

Only 4.8 per cent of the native-born families derive income from the payments of boarders or lodgers, as compared with 21.4 per cent of the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born races reporting, the Lithuanians report the largest proportion of families who have an income from boarders or lodgers, the per cent being 62.5, while 31.4 per cent of the Polish families have an income from that source. The North Italians, South Italians, and Mexicans follow in the order named. Compared with these races, only 5.1 per cent of the American whites and 4.2 per cent of the negroes have an income from boarders or lodgers.

Of the Lithuanian families reporting, 93.8 per cent have income from sources other than those named above, followed by the Mexicans with 82.1 per cent. The lowest proportion, 4.8 per cent, is shown by the Croatians.

The following table shows the extent to which the families studied depend exclusively upon certain specified sources of income:

TABLE 417.--Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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From the preceding table it will be seen that, of a total of 418 families, a large proportion, or 43.5 per cent, have their entire income from husband, while a very small proportion, or 0.2 per cent, have their entire income from children and boarders or lodgers; 9.3 per cent have their entire income from husband and children, 6.2 per

cent from husband and boarders or lodgers, 1.4 per cent from children, and less than 1 per cent from either husband and wife or boarders or lodgers. A relatively large proportion, 37.8 per cent, is shown as having entire income from source or combination of sources not before specified.

Comparing the native and foreign born, it will be seen that the former show the largest proportion having entire income from husband, husband and wife, and husband and children. The nativeborn do not report proportions for those having entire income from children, children and boarders or lodgers, and boarders or lodgers, while the foreign-born show 1.7 per cent, 0.3 per cent, and 0.8 per cent, respectively.

Comparing the foreign-born races reporting, it will be seen that the largest proportion, or 90.5 per cent, having entire income from husband is shown by the Croatians, while the smallest is shown by the Mexicans. None of the Lithuanian families are entirely supported by the husband. The proportions of the other races range from 68.9 per cent as shown by the Slovaks to 26.9 per cent as shown by the Welsh. Only four races report families supported by children, with proportions ranging from 11.5 per cent as shown by the Welsh to 1.3 per cent as shown by the North Italians; and only one race, the North Italian, reports entire income from boarders or lodgers, the proportion of families deriving entire income from this source amounting to 4 per cent.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY

INCOME.

As regards the source of family incomes in the coal-mining industry of the Southwest, the table following is of interest in that it shows the per cent of total family income received from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

48296°— YOL 7–1145

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