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must not be made too hurriedly. For example, the percentages show a larger proportion of households having two rooms not used as sleeping rooms in the case of the Mexicans than in the case of any other race, and this showing is due to the practice, general on the part of this race, of hiring an apartment of three or four rooms, and living, cooking, and sleeping entirely in one room, the other rooms being used for the storage of fuel and like purposes. Thus the standard of living is lower, not higher, among the Mexicans than among the other

races.

The three races having a large percentage of households in which the number of rooms not used as sleeping rooms is greater than two are the Welsh, the American white, and the Irish. The figure for the Welsh is about 52 per cent, that for the American white and the Irish about 20 per cent. Of the negro households 11.1 per cent report more than two rooms not used as sleeping rooms. The percentages for the other races are very small.

CHAPTER VI.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad-Criminality of recent immigrantsDiseases of recent immigrants-Age classification of employees and members of their households [Text Tables 434 to 444 and General Tables 181 to 190].

LITERACY.

One of the points of greatest interest and importance in connection with the immigrant labor supply is found in the inquiry as to their literacy. From a purely industrial standpoint the literacy of the immigrant mine worker has no significance beyond the bearing of his ability to read and write upon industrial progress and efficiency. The following table shows the literacy of 6,785 employees in the mines of the Southwest, of whom 2,745 are native-born, 753 nativeborn of foreign father, and 4,040 are foreign-born.

TABLE 434.-Per cent of male employees who read and per cent who read and write, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Upon examining the relative showing of the nativity groups in the table above, it is seen that a slightly higher degree of literacy exists among the native-born of foreign father, and that 6.4 per cent

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of those who have been in the United States ten or more years, 96.7 per cent can read and 93.4 per cent can read and write.

A total of 280 North Italians furnish information, and of this number 86 per cent of those who have been in the United States under five years can read and write; of those who have been in the United States from five to nine years, 82.6 per cent can read, while 78 per cent can read and write; and of those who have been in the United States ten or more years, 78 per cent can read and 76 per cent can read and write.

Due largely to geographical location, a large number of Mexicans are employed in the bituminous coal-mining industry in the Southwest. Of the 102 reporting, 44.4 per cent of those who have been in the United States under five years can read and write; of those who have been in the United States from five to nine years, 59.1 per cent can read and write; and of those who have been in the United States ten or more years, 49.3 per cent can read and 47.9 per cent can read and write.

Of the Lithuanians, 79.3 per cent of those who have been in the United States under five years can read, while 72.4 per cent can read and write; of those who have been in the United States from five to nine years, 71.4 per cent can read and 61.2 per cent can read and write; and of those who have been in the United States for ten years or more, 67.6 per cent can read and 62.2 per cent can read and write. The table next presented shows literacy at present among the foreign-born members of households in connection with the age of the individuals at the time of coming to the United States.

TABLE 437.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

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The individuals in the above table have been divided into two groups. The first group includes all persons who came to the United States when under 14 years of age, and the second all who came when 14 or over. The percentages of those able to read only, and of those able both to read and to write are given for the two groups.

It is seen that of the total number of individuals who came to this country under 14 years of age, 82 per cent can read. Of those who came here when 14 or over, the percentage is 75.5.

Eighty-two and six-tenths per cent of all the individuals covered by the preceding table are able to read; 80.2 per cent can both read and write. Among the males the proportion who are able to read is 85.7 per cent; among the females it is 78.6 per cent. A similar superiority on the part of the males appears in the percentages showing ability both to read and to write.

The percentage of literacy is in general much higher for the nativeborn than for the foreign-born. A further distinction between the native-born and the foreign-born is that, for the former, the percentage of males who are able to read only is lower than the percentage of females who can read only. In the case of the nativeborn of foreign father, it is also evident that a higher percentage of females than of males can both read and write.

Of the foreign races for which the percentages have been computed, the Irish, Welsh, North Italians, and Croatians, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportions of persons who can read, and the Mexicans and South Italians, the smallest. With most of the races the percentage of literacy is higher for the males than for the females, but in the case of the Irish the reverse is true.

To show according to length of residence the per cent of foreignborn persons who can read and write in the United States, the following table is entered:

TABLE 436.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Out of a total of 1,028 persons 10 years of age or over who have been in the United States less than five years, 80 per cent can read and 76.7 per cent can read and write; of those who have been in the United States from five to nine years, 73.8 per cent can read and 69.9 per cent can read and write; and of those who have been in the United States for ten years or more, 75.8 per cent can read and 72.8 per cent can read and write.

Of the races reporting in numbers sufficiently large for computation, ability to read is more general among the foreign-born Irish than any other race. All of the Irish who have been in the United States under five years can both read and write; all of those who have been in the United States from five to nine years can read and write; and

of those who have been in the United States ten or more years, 96.7 per cent can read and 93.4 per cent can read and write.

A total of 280 North Italians furnish information, and of this number 86 per cent of those who have been in the United States under five years can read and write; of those who have been in the United States from five to nine years, 82.6 per cent can read, while 78 per cent can read and write; and of those who have been in the United States ten or more years, 78 per cent can read and 76 per cent can read and write.

Due largely to geographical location, a large number of Mexicans are employed in the bituminous coal-mining industry in the Southwest. Of the 102 reporting, 44.4 per cent of those who have been in the United States under five years can read and write; of those who have been in the United States from five to nine years, 59.1 per cent can read and write; and of those who have been in the United States ten or more years, 49.3 per cent can read and 47.9 per cent can read and write.

Of the Lithuanians, 79.3 per cent of those who have been in the United States under five years can read, while 72.4 per cent can read and write; of those who have been in the United States from five to nine years, 71.4 per cent can read and 61.2 per cent can read and write; and of those who have been in the United States for ten years or more, 67.6 per cent can read and 62.2 per cent can read and write. The table next presented shows literacy at present among the foreign-born members of households in connection with the age of the individuals at the time of coming to the United States.

TABLE 437.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

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The individuals in the above table have been divided into two groups. The first group includes all persons who came to the United States when under 14 years of age, and the second all who came when 14 or over. The percentages of those able to read only, and of those able both to read and to write are given for the two groups.

It is seen that of the total number of individuals who came to this country under 14 years of age, 82 per cent can read. Of those who came here when 14 or over, the percentage is 75.5.

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