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Numerical relations of equivalent numbers, 213—The views of Prout,

Thomson, and Dumas, on the atomic weights of bodies, 213—The

views of Berzelius and Stas on the atomic weights of bodies, 218–

Binary theory of salts, 219-Facts which appear to support the

binary view, 221—Both views of the constitution of salts hypothe-

tical, 227-Objections to the binary theory, 227-Exercises, 229.

Pages 123 to 133



Dimorphism, 230—Trimorphism, 231—Influence of heat in causing

bodies to crystallize in one system or another, 233—The different

crystalline forms of the same substance not of equal stability, 234

-Examples—Isodimorphism, 235—Examples — The same sub-

stance in its different crystalline forms differs in its physical cha-

racters, 236—Examples- List of dimorphous bodies, 237–Pseudo-

morphism, 238—The process by which pseudomorphs are produced,

240-Isomorphism, 243— Behaviour of two or more non-isomor-

phous crystalline substances in the same solution during crystal.

lization, 244 Behaviour of two or more isomorphous crystalline

substances in solution during crystallization, 246-Intromixture of

isomorphous substances in minerals, 249—Table of some of the

most important groups of isomorphous substances, 251-Graham's

opinion upon the isomorphous relations of water, 252–Scheerer's

view upon the isomorphous relations of water, 253–Polymeric

isomorphism, 254–The method for deducing the rational formula

for compounds containing isomorphous constituents, 255—-System

of notation employed in mineralogical works, 259–Exercises-The

different reasons which have been suggested in explanation of the

phenomena of isomorphism, 261–Kopp's view that isomorphous

bodies have the same equivalent volume, 263—Some of the views

held upon bodies with like forms but unlike constitutions, 265–

The chief points which have been brought before the notice of the

student, 266-Aid derived from isomorphism in determining equi.

valents, 268. · · · · · · · Pages 134 to 163



Positive Group.-Hydrides of metals, 456—Metals proper, 457 —

Aleobolic hydrides, and alcoholic metals of the first class, 460—

Preparation of the hydrides, 464-Properties of the hydrides, 465–

Preparation of the alcohol metals, 466- Properties of the alcohol

metals, 467—Mixed alcoholic metals, 469—Second class of alcohol

radicals, their preparation and properties, 470—The third class,

172—The preparation of the hydrides, 473—The properties of the

hydrides, 475.

Vegative Group.- Acid radicals, 477Constitution of the aldehydes,

178–Preparation of the aldehydes of the first class, 484–Their

properties, 487–Preparation of the aldehydes of the second class,

101_Their properties, 496 - Preparation of the aldehydes of the

third class, 407-Their properties, 498--Properties of the aldehydes

of the fourth class, 503- Preparation of the aldehydes of the fifth

class, 505—Their properties, 506—Constitution of the ketones,

507—Their preparation, 508_Exercise. · · Pages 253 to 269


Positive Group.-Hydrides of metals, 514-Metals proper, 515

Constitution of the radicals of the biatomic alcohols, 616-Their

preparation, 522 – Their properties, 525 — Compounds of metals

with monatomic radicals, 529.

Negative Group.-Biatomic non-metallic elements, 533--Aldehydes

of the bibasic mineral acids. .

• • Pages 269 to 276


Positive Group.-Hydrides of metals, 534-Metals proper, 535-

Compounds of triatomic metals with monatomic radicals, 537.

Negative Group --Hydrides of negative or acid metals, 538.

Pages 276 to 278


The members composing this class, 540. ·

· Page 278

APPENDIX A.-Homologous bodies—Isologous bodies. APPENDIX

B.-On the atomic weights of the elements. • Pages 278 to 284




Positive Group.-Hydrates of the metals proper, 543—Anhydrous

oxides, 545—The sulphides, &c., of the metals proper, 546—Exer.
aise-Basic derivatives of ammonia constructed on the water type,
547 - Exercises - Phosphoniums, arsoniums, stiboniums, 552 —
Exercise-The bodies termed alcohols defined, 553_-The bodies
termed ethers defined, 554 — Preparation of alcohols of the first
class, 557–Substitution of the typical hydrogen in the alcohols by
other radicals, 565–Substitution of the oxygen in the alcohols by
sulphur, &c., 566-Action of oxygen on the alcohols, 568-Action
of potash on the alcohols, 569—-Åction of sulphuric acid, 570—
Action of some acids and salts, 571—Preparation of the first class
of ethers, 573–Substitution of sulphur for the oxygen in ethers, 576
- Substitution of chlorine for the hydrogen in ethers, 578—Exer.
cises-Preparation of the alcohols of the second class, 580-
properties, 582—Substitution of other bodies for their typical hydro-
gen, 583–Substitution of sulphur for their oxygen, 584- Prepara-
tion of the first group of the third class of alcohol radicals, 586—
Replacement of their typical hydrogen, 588— Action of sulphuric
acid upon the alcohols, 591–Action of ammonia upon the alcohols,
693–Preparation of the alcohols of the second group, 594-Action
of oxidizing agents upon the

g agents upon them. 596-Fourth class of alcohols. 597
-Fifth class of alcohols, 5984 Exercises.
Negative Group.-Basicity of acids, 600_Mineral acids, 611--General

properties of the monobasic organic acids, 612—Formation of the
monobasic organic acids of the first class, 616—Replacement of
their typical hydrogen, 632—Preparation and properties of the acid
anhydrides, 642—Replacement of the oxygen in the acids proper
and the anhydrides by sulphur, &c., 648—Method of Heintz for the
separation of the fatty acids, 652-Liebig's method, 655—Determina-
tion of the melting point of fusible organic bodies, 661-Properties
of the organic acids of the second class, 663–Properties of the
organic acids of the third class, 677—Properties of the organic acids
of the fourth class, 682— Replacement of the hydrogen in the acids
by other radicals, 684–Oxidation of these acids, 692—The changes
they undergo by distillation, 693—Properties of the fifth class of
acids, 696–Properties of the sixth class of acids, 699. APPENDIX C.
-Peroxides of acetyl, &c., 705. Definition of an oxygen salt, 706
-Sulphur salts, 708—Salts of the monobasic inorganic acids-
Exercises-Salts of the monobasicorga ic acids, 709–Exercise-De-
finition of compound ethers, 710-General properties of compound
ethers, 711–Their preparation, 714—Exerciso--Monamidic acids,
716-Formation of secondary monamidi: acids, 718—Exercise
Formation of tertiary monamidic acids, 7-3-Exercise.

Pages 284 to 336
Positive Group.-Hydrates of the metals proper, 727—Metals proper,

728-The basic derivatives of ammonium constructed on the type

of a double molecule, 733—Exercise Physical properties of the

girools, 734-Their preparation, 737—Replacement of their typical

hydrogen by other electro-positive bodies, 739—Replacement by

electro-negative bodies, 741 -- Action of chloride of zinc on the

glycols, 748-Formation of the ethers of the glycols, 749—Their

quidation, 755—Conversion of these biatomic alcohols into mon-

atomme ones, 762 — Action of fused potash on the glycols, 765.

APPENDIX D.-Polyethylenic bodies, 766. APPENDIX E.-Com-

bination of the aldehydes with electro-negative radicals, 779.

Negative Group.-General properties of the biatomic acids, 787

Bibasic inorganic acids, 797 General properties of the biatomic

organic acids, 795—First class, 797—Basicity of lactic acid, 797—

Formation of this class of acids, 805-Action of monobasic acids

upon them, 807—Acids of the second class, 811–Their physical

properties, 813—Their preparation, 814-Acids of the third class,

816—Their preparation, 817--Acids of the fourth class, 821—Their

preparation, 822–Salts of the bibasic acids, 823–Exercises-Bi.

atomie ethers, 825—General properties of these ethers, 825—

Exercise, • • •

• • • • Pages 336 to 367


Positive Group.-Hydrates of the metals proper, 831-Anhydrous
cxides, 832--Teratomic alcohols, 834–Their properties, 835—Their
preparation, 838—Substitution of the halogens for their typical
hydrogen, 841--Formation of acids by the combination of glyce-

ne with polyatomic acid radicals, 853Substitution of monatomic

sloobol radicals for the hydrogen, 859—Substitution of oxygen for

some of the hydrogen in the radical, 860- Formation of glycera-

mine, 865—Transformation of glycerine into propyl-glycol, 866—

Decomposition of glycerine by potash, 867—Exercise. APPENDIX

F.-Polyglycerines, 869.

Negatire Group.-Triatomic acids, 871—Their general properties,

872-List of triatomie mineral acids, 877-Triatomic organic acids

of the first class, 879—Of the second class, 880—Of the fourth

elass, 881–Exercise. · · · • • Pages 368 to 379


Basicity of silicic acid. . . . . . . Pages 379 to 384


Positive Group.-Chlorides of the positive metals, 896—Chlorides,

&c., of the mon-onium bodies, 898-Exercises-Decomposition by
heat of these bodies, 899-Exercise-Chlorides, &c., of the alcohol
radicals of the first class; the preparation of the chlorides, 903—
Properties of the chlorides, 905–Preparation of the bromides, 908
- Properties of the bromides, 909-Preparation of the iodides, 910

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