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ALLEGED CHANGE OF CLIMATE IN ICELAND (760 of the ecliptic were made to shift its position

I 6, 138, 192, 333, 429, 475).—In a former com- slightly, and thus to decrease the radius of the punication I brought to the notice of readers that circle which the pole of the heavens was assumed the assertions relative to there having been no to trace. The impossibility of the pole of the bange of climate during an entire revolution of heavens tracing a circle round an imaginary centre, the equinoxes, and due to astronomical causes, from which it continually decreased its distance, Tas not in accordance with the facts. As there did not seem to be considered of much conseartists at the present time a total absence of know. quence. The difficulty was supposed to be overledge on this subject in the mind of the general come by, assuming that this centre shifted its reader, I will endeavour to place before you the position less than one and a half degrees, and conmain facts of the problem.

sequently prevented any great change of climate More than three hundred years ago, when it ever occurring on earth. This is the theory which became admitted that it was true that the earth is at present considered orthodox. At the date moved, the gradual and uniform change in position when this theory was invented the facts of geology of the pole of the heavens was explained as due to were unknown. That these facts proved that an conical movement of the earth's axis. At that arctic climate had prevailed down to 540 latitude date it was imagined that no change whatever in both hemispheres, and comparatively quite occurred, during thousands of years oven, in the recently, was not even dreamed of. When these obliquity of the ecliptic, or extent of the arctic facts were admitted, astronomers asserted that circles, or tropics. It being a rigid geometrical astronomy could give no explanation of the facts, law that the distance between the pole of the and, strange as it may appear, it seems to be the

beavens and the pole of the ecliptic must be of the great object of a certain class of astronomers in same value as the obliquity, it was, on the assump- the present day to prove that astronomy is so tion that the obliquity never varied, claimed as a feeble a science that it is quite unable to account fact that the circular course which the pole of the for these facts. When, more than thirty years ago, heavens traced must have for its centre the pole of I commenced investigating these facts, I found that

the ecliptic, from which it was supposed it never the assertion of the earth's axis tracing a cone was Taried its distance. Had the facts been as then obscure—that it must be the two half axes that

imagined, the above statement would have been traced cones. Since that date my contention has correct. During pearly a bundred and fifty years been admitted, but with the attempt to assert that it was imagined that no change had occurred, or all along it was meant that it was the two half ever could occur, in the obliquity, consequently it axes that traced cones, and not, as had been stated, was affirmed as an established fact that the pole of and shown by diagrams, the whole axis. Afte the heavens traced a circle round the pole of the several years of investigation I found that the ecliptic as a centre. This movement having been cause of the half axes tracing cones was due to a accepted as infallible, theorists set to work to second rotation of the earth, and that the pole of explain why the pole of the heavens always traced the heavens, instead of tracing a circle round the a circle round the pole of the ecliptic as a centre, pole of the ecliptic as a centre, traced a circle (in and the theory supposed to explain the movement consequence of the second rotation) round a point was accepted and taught in all the schools. About six degrees from the pole of the ecliptic, thus a hundred and fifty years ago more accurate obser- causing, during about 15,000 years, an extension vations proved that a decrease in the obliquity of of the arctic circle of twelve degrees, and explainthe ecliptic was occurring, and the examination of ing not only all the facts of the Great Ice Age, ancient records showed that this decrease had con- but giving its date and duration. As a proof that tinued during two thousand years at least. This these conclusions were correct, I have demonstrated discovery was a very serious matter, as it inter- how the polar distance of a star can be calculated fered with the orthodox theories of the day, inas- for each year for a bundred years or more from one much as, if the obliquity decreased, it followed observation only of this star—a calculation hitherto that the distance between the pole of the heavens supposed to be impossible. I have put this, and the pole of the ecliptic must decrease, conse- among others, as a test question. Theorists have quently the one pole could not describe a circle hitherto treated this question in the same manner round the other pole as a centre. During several as MR. LYNN has done, viz., prudently avoiding it. years attempts were made to reject the fact of a MR. Lynn must really mean to attempt a joke decrease in the obliquity. Papers in the Philo- when he states that we are not to accept what Sir sophical Transactions of a hundred and fifty years J. Herschel and his numerous copyists asserted ago will show how hard the old theorists fought relative to the earth’s axis tracing a cone, just as in their endeavours to keep their theories “as does a tee-totum, because every one should know they were." At length it was agreed that, even that another tee-totum was under the floor and granting a decrease in the obliquity, the accepted twisting. MR. LYNN has now only to advance theory need not be altered very much if the pole another step, and to assert that when it was stated

that the earth’s axis traced a circle round the pole modesty, and religion ; for though he exercised himsel of the ecliptio as a centre, every person acquainted very much in the art military, yet he found time so ofte with astronomy must know that there were six Divine service, as if he had been in holy orders., Hei degrees under the floor, and that the axis traced a said to have made the hymn, Sancti Spiritus adsit

nobi circle round these sis degrees in addition to the gratia "; and by these arts,' not less powerful than hi radius between the pole of the heavens and the arms, he gained the hearts of the people, and drew thos pole of the ecliptic. Some three hundred and fifty honourable respects to his family which they had befort years ago two learned authorities on astronomy,

given to that of Charles the Great." viz., Libra of Pisa, and Sizzi-lived and died un- Is there any sequence with this commencement convinced that Jupiter possessed satellites. During still in use in the Church of Rome? I find it the past ten years I have received several letters given at full length in the missal of Arbuthnott. from a person who defies me to convince him that The first five lines are as follows:the earth is not a flat surface. MR. Lynn is afraid Sancti spiritus assit nobis gratia, that unless I convince certain gentlemen, whose

Quæ corda nostra sibi faciat habitacula, names be gives, I shall not convince him that the

Expulsis inde cunctis vitiis spiritalibus.

Spiritus alme, illustrator omnium, earth has any movement other than that invented Horridas nostri mentis purga tenebras. by theorists three hundred years ago.

R. M. SPENCE, M.A. I am afraid that Jupiter possesses satellites, in Mange of Arbothnott, N.B. spite of Messrs. Libra and Sizzi being unconvinced. I am certain the earth is not a flat surface, although

RICHARD OF CORNWALL (7th S. x. 467).—Hayles I cannot convince my correspondent. I am also

“is situated in the lower division of the hundred satisfied that the earth has a second rotation, the of Kiftsgate, at the foot of the range of hills pole of which is six degrees from the pole of the which divides the Cotswold from the Vale part of ecliptic, even though Mr. LYNN and those gentle the county, runding from north-east to south-west men whose names he substitutes for proof and nearly the whole length of it. It stands two miles argument are unconvinced of the facts. I claim distant north-east from Winchcombe, ten east that such test questions as I have given are proofs. from Tewkesbury, and seventeen north-east from Not avoiding these questions, and copying the Gloucester.” proceedings of the obstructionists of the past, who Richard, Earl of Cornwall, in fulfilment of a considered that when they stated that Ptolemy, vow, built a Cistercian monastery here in 1246, Libra, Sizzi, and Co. were unconvinced that the which was dedicated with much pomp on Novemearth had any movement whatever, they proved ber 5, 1251. The arms of the founder were that it could not move, MR. LYNN claimed to formerly in the ball window, and round them, instruct the readers of 'N. & Q.' that no change of

“Ricard' Plantagenet semper augustus Fundator climate from astronomical causes can occur during

noster.an entire revolution of the equinoxes. I claim to

He died at Berkbamsted, April 2, 2272. His have proved that as a variation of twelve degrees heart was buried in the church of the Friars Minors in the arctic circle takes place during 15,000 years, died 1261, was buried here; and Edmund their son,

in Oxford, and bis body at Hayles. His wife, who astronomy can, and does, prove this change.

It is not the first time in the history of astro- Earl of Cornwall, was interred in this church in nomy that men have imagined the theories in 1300 (Rudder's 'History of Gloucestershire,' pp. which they believed were the laws of Nature. 487-8, Cirencester, 1779). ED. MARSHALL. When a man can calculate the position of a star The Earl is buried at Hales, or Hayles Abbey, for a hundred years from one observation he may which is near Winchcombe, in Gloucestersbire, claim to know something. Can MR. LYNN do and is not Halesowen. His first wife, Isabel de this? If he cannot, he has no claims to be a Clare, lies at Beaulieu Abbey, her heart having teacher as regards climatic changes from astro- been taken to the grave of her first husband nomical causes.

(Gilbert, Earl of Pembroke) at Tewkesbury. The A. W. DRAYSON, Major-General.

second wife, Sancha of Provence, was interred at Southsea,

Hales with her husband. The burial-place of the ROYAL POETS (7th S. x. 9, 132, 251, 355).-Some third wife, Beatrix, is not known. Her name and correspondents have stated doubts as to the author-history are wholly uncertain. She was a German, ship of the hymn "Veni Sancte Spiritus," which and niece of the Archbishop of Cologne, but whose has usually been assigned to King Robert II. of daughter she was seems never yet to have been France. It is, perhaps, not generally known that satisfactorily ascertained. Some writers give her he has been credited with the authorship of another the name of Falkmont, some of Hohentetten. Her Pentecostal Sequence. Platina, in his Lives of the very marriage has been called in question ; but Popes' (under Gregory V.), says of him :

this point is settled beyond doubt by the Close " Robert, the son and successor of the great Hugh, is Rolls, which give her the titles of “ Beatrix Regina much and deservedly praised for his courage, justice, Alemannia " and " Beatrix que fuit uxor Ricardi

66

quondam Regis_Alemanniæ" (Rot Claus. 56 John Newdigate, it having been part of the Henry III., 4 Edward I.). She entered into possessions belonging to the Abbey of St. Albans litigation with her stepson, Earl Edmund, con- (Pat. 53 Henry VIII. p. 1). Sir Robert's grandson cerning the manor of Langeberg, in 1276 ; and the was created Baron Dormer of Wenge in 1615. last mention of her in the English records is dated

CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 1277. She probably either died or returned to Swallowfield. Germany soon afterwards. There is another

There is a manor and a parish of Wing in alternative possible—that she may have remarried Rutland. At the time of the suppression of the in a lower station, so much to the displeasure of monasteries the manor of Wing belonged to the the king that her dower-lands were forfeited to the monastery of Thorney, co. Camb.; the Marquis Crown; and the utter disappearance of her name so of Exeter is the present lord of the manor. suddenly from the records seems to point either to

Jos. PHILLIPS. this or death. The Chronicle of Hales Abbey Stamford. (Harleian MS. 3725) has not a word to say of her

[Other replies are acknowledged.] after her marriage.

HERMENTRUDE. (MR, Thos. H. BAKER refers to Sir Richard Colt

CHURCH AT GREENSTEAD (7th S. x. 208, 297, Hoare's · History of Modern Wiltshire,' Hundred of 371, 476).--A doubt is expressed about the use of Mere," p. 6. Other contributors are thanked for replies chestnut. The books generally say that the roof to the same effect as those which appear.]

of the great schoolroom at Westminster School is

made of chestnut, and is of the thirteenth century. THE DROMEDARY (766 S. ix. 485; x. 36, 232).— The tables in the College Hall also are said to be of

By the mass, and 'tis like a camel, indeed, the same wood, taken from the wreck of a ship Something is rotten in the state of_Denmark belonging to the Spanish Armada, and bearing when a query about the first camel in England is marks of shot.

W. C. B. entered under the unnatural heading of The Dromedary'! Having stated that preliminary

“No PENNY, NO PATERNOSTER" (7th S. x. 308, objection, let me say that the Emperor Frederick 434).—This may possibly have arisen from the II., in the year 1235, as a token of his affection price charged for a prayer, or rather prayers, offered for Henry III., sent him unum camelum (see up by the parish parson or other cleric ; but I Matthew Paris, at very end of year cited).

think not. St. Peter's pence, gathered for the Pope GEO. NEILSON.

of Rome, were not necessarily coppers. Both words

in this saying seem to me to have been chosen for MANOR OF WYNG (76b S. x. 468). There are the alliteration dear to our ancestors, which, like two places bearing this name, one in Buckingham. a rhyme, made the phrase easy of remembrance. shire, the other in Rutland. The former is no Hence, I think, this proverbial jingle was chosen doubt meant, as the Penns were connected with to express what might otherwise have been exthe county of Bucks. The manor is well known pressed as no payment, no prayer.” from the saying (of which there are variations) :

BR. NICHOLSON.
Wing, Tring, and Ivinghoe,
Hampden of Hampden did forego,

DAVID ELGINBROD'S EPITAPH (7th S. X. 486).-
For striking the Black Prince a blow,

I gave this epitaph, with a variant, in a collection And glad was he to escape so.

of 'Canting Epitaphs,' 6th S. xi. 151, but I do not See ' N. & Q.,' 4tb S. vi. 277, 331, 428, 517. One remember any discussion on the subject occurring story is that the person struck was Prince Henry, in the columns of 'N. &Q.'; also I do not rememson of James I.; but this seems inconsistent with ber ever meeting it with the name of David ; I the grant of the manor by Henry VIII. to John have always seen John. The reason why it could Penne.

W. E. BUCKLEY.

not be traced in the Index is that it was buried

under the heading of "Inscriptions." There is a Wing in Buckinghamshire and Any similarity, however, that there may be another in Rutland. I have no doubt “ that the thought to be between the Élginbrod epitaph and king gave Jobo Penne the manor of Wyog," the sublimely intentioned passage quoted by MR. which is five miles from Oakham, because so CARMICHAEL from 'All for Jesus can only be far back as Henry I. the sovereign had become considered the similarity of a parody. possessed of manors in Rutland in exchange for

R. H. BUSK. Sutton given to Roger, Earl of Warwick. H. G. GRIFFINHOOFE.

LEATHER AND ATHEISM (7th S. x. 385).-It may 34, St. Petersburg Place, W.

not be uninteresting or out of place to draw atten

tion, in reference to the remark of MR. BIRCH that The manor of Wyng (or Wing or Weng) is in “Cobblers have always been a contemplative craft,” Bucks. In 1544, on the dissolution of the to the utterances of one of the characters—& cobbler monasteries, it was granted to Sir Robert Dormer, and an astrologer combined—in Edward, Lord Sheriff of Bucks, and his wife Jane, daughter of Lytton's, ever interesting novel of English town

and country life, namely, What Will He Do thought such is the case from his knowledge of With It?' which first appeared in Blackwood's history.

W. J. BIRCH. Magazine in 1857. Mr. Merle, the person I have

Leather and atheism have always been conreferred to—who, by-the-by, “loved to talk out of

nected. Such a sedentary occupation gives more the common way"_thus unburdens himself with

time for thinking.

H. Pogh. respect to the superiority of his calling, intellectually, compared with that of a tailor :-"I'm for the old EPIECOPAL CONFIRMATIONS AT Bow CHURCH times; my neighbour, Joe Spruce, is for the new, (7th S. x. 483).-G. M. E. asks a question about a and says we are all a progressing. But he's a story of a threatened opposition to the confirmapink-I'm a blue. I'm a Tory, Spruce is a Rad. tion of a certain bishop, and says, “ Henry Ven And what is more to the purpose, he is a tailor, never lived in London, or he is just the man to and I am & cobbler. You see, sir," quoth the have done it." Your correspondent is nearer the cobbler, “that a man's business has a deal to do mark than he thinks. It was the Rev. Richard with his manner of thinking. Every trade, I take Venn, of St. Antholin's, London, the father of it, has ideas as belong to it. Butchers don't see Henry Venn, who threatened a public opposition life as bakers do; and if you talk to a dozen to the appointment of Dr. Rundle to the bishopric tallow-chandlers, then to a dozen blacksmiths, you of Gloucester. His opposition was successful, and will see tallow-chandlers are peculiar, and black, though Dr. Rundle was an intimate friend of the smiths too.”—“You are a keen observer,” replied Lord Chancellor, the appointment was not made. the hero of the novel admiringly; "your remark The latter part of G. M. E.'s note seems, as you is new to me; I dare say it is true.”—“Of course suggest, to be founded on the story of Andrew it is ; and the stars have summat to do with it, Marvell ; but it is quite true that attempts were for if they order a man's calling, it stands to reason made both to bribe Mr. Venn and to deter him by they order a man's mind to fit it. Now a tailor threats from persisting in his opposition. sits on his board with others, and is always a talk.

HENRY VENN, Vicar of Sittingbourne. ing with 'em, and a reading the news; therefore he thinks as his fellows do, smart and sharp, bang

BARON HUDDLESTON (7th S. X. 487).—The up to the day, but nothing 'riginal and all his own collar of SS. is, or was, worn by the Lord Chief like. But a cobbler," "continued the man of Justice of the Queen's Bench, the Lord Chief Jusleather, with a majestic air, “sits by hisself, and tice of the Common Pleas, the Lord Chief Barod talks with hisself; and what he thinks gets into of the Exchequer, the Kings of Arms, the Heralds, his head without being put there by another man's the Sergeant-at-Arms, and the Sergeant-Trumpeter. tongue.”—"You enlighten me more and more," As a Justice of the Queen's Bench, Baron Huddlesaid our friend with the nose in the air, bowing ston would not have worn the collar of SS.

ALBERT HARTSHORNE. respectfully; "a tailor is gregarious, a cobbler solitary. The gregarious go with the future, the LANCERS (7th S. x. 448, 495).—Whatever may solitary stick by the past. I understand why you be the case as to Paris in 1836, ten years before I are a Tory, and perhaps a poet.”—“Well, a bit of knew the Lancers, and I heard the terms applied one," said the cobbler, with an iron smile ; "and on the stage to a dance of devils (qy. at the many's the cobbler who is a poet, or discovers Adelphi ?).

HYDE CLARKE. marvellous things in a crystal ; whereas a tailor, sir [spoken with great contempt], only sees the upper

SWEDISH BAPTISMAL FOLK-LORE (7th S. . leather of the world's sole in a newspaper." (Vide 135, 236).-In Nidderdale, in Yorkshire, nightjars vol. i. pp. 8 and 9, Knebsworth edition, Messrs. are known by the name of“ gabble ratchets," and George Routledge & Sons, London, 1875.)

the people say that these birds contain the souls of HENRY GERALD HOPE. infants that have never received baptism, and that, 6, Freegrove Road, N,

in consequence, are doomed to be perpetually " Somehow it always is journeymen shoemakers who wandering through the air. do these things (self-suffocation by charcoal ?]. I wonder

F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. what the reason is. Something in the leather, I sup

Sutton WARWICK (7th S. x. 468).—After the pose.”—Mrs. Nickleby (quoted from memory).

Norman invasion the Conqueror retained in his JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

possession the woods of Sutton-Coldfield, which The connexion between leather and atheism is bad belonged to Edwine, Earl of Mercia, in the

“The Revolt of Man,' by Mr. Besant, chap. X., time of Edward the Confessor. The woods, which “The First Spark.” “It is a very odd thing," said extended beyond the limits of the county, conthe professor, when he heard the story, “that tidued to form part of the royal demesnes till the cobblers have always been atheists." The relation time of Henry I., who granted them to Roger, is not between leather and atheism, as reported in Earl of Warwick, in exchange for the manors of the Pall Mall Budget, but between cobblers and Hockham and Lorgham, in Rutlandshire. The atheism. We may suppose that Mr. Besant manor subsequently became the property of Q. V.

Richard Neville in right of Anne his wife, and, on near Easington, in the county of Durham, who his taking part with Henry VI., was seized by came into possession of the manor of Mainsforth, Edward IV. and granted to Sir Edward Mount- near Bishop Middlebam, in the same county. His fort, one of the king's barons, for ten years, the son, another Robert Lyon, died (see Surtees's rangership of the chase being given to John Holt,' History of Durham,' vol. i. p. 276 and vol. iii

. Esq., for life. The property was afterwards settled p. 20) either in 1744 or 1745, and was my grandon the daughters of Lady Anne Neville, and father's grandfather, as I mentioned in 'N. & Q.,' eventually came to the Crown by special grant, 7th S. ii

. 288. I remember my father telling confirmed by Parliament. The manor house was me that there was a tradition in the family then taken down by one of the king's officers, who that a previous generation came from the county of sold most of the materials to the Marquis of Dorset, Northumberland into Durham, so that relationship for the erection of his seat at Broadgate, in William Lynne of Cambridgeshire is unlikely. Leicester. The chase and manor subsequently

W. T. Lynn. became the property of Harman, alias Vesey, Blackbeath, Bishop of Exeter, and a native of Sutton-Coldfield, who, in the nineteenth year of the reign of Henry

GEORGE SAND'S PROVINCIALISMS (7th S. x. 449). VIII., gave them to the Corporation of Sutton to -MR. BOUCHIER will probably find what he be beld by them at a fee farm rent of 581. per Cantons Voisins," par Un Amateur du Vieux

requires in Vocabulaire du Berry et de Quelques annum, and threw open the chase for the benefit of the poor. King John was the last monarch Langage, Paris, 1842. Probably it is now out who took the diversion of bunting in the chase, of print ; if so, I shall be pleased to let Mr. which stretched from the river Tame to the river BOUCHIER consult my

copy. J. G. ANDERSON. Bourne (See Dugdale's ' Antiquities of Warwick ').

Helvetia, Mountview Road, Finsbury Park, N. WILLIAM GILMORE. BERKSHIRE INCUMBENTS (7th S. x. 448). - MR. 118, Gower Street, W.C.

SHERWOOD will do well to consult the Index of "The chase of Sutton Warwick,” according to Institutions, in the Round Room of the Public Brayley's map of the county, must be the same Record Office, where the institutions are entered as Sutton Park, a well wooded and watered tract of according to dioceses. land, in which the inhabitants of Sutton Coldfield, MR. SHERWOOD will find in the Bishops' Certifior Colefield, had--and for aught I know have still cates of Institutions, Salisbury diocese (1580-1838), -the privilege of free pasture. “A rider of the at the Public Record Office, numerous entries chase" I take to bave been the king's agent, the relating to the Berkshire clergy. ranger, an office that sometimes, as at Enfield

DANIEL HIPWELL. Chase, included those of master of the

game,

wood- 34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell.
ward, bailiff, and one of the keepers. (Vide
Robinson's 'Enfield,' vol. i. p. 204.)

RAINBOW FOLK-LORE (76h S. X. 366, 471). -In
H. G. GRIFFINHOOFE.

Dorset, where I was brought up, half a century ago, 34, St. Petersburg Place, W.

the secondary rainbow was called the “watergull,"

and supposed necessary to make the weather siga PALLAVICINI AND CROMWELL (7th S. x. 445, a satisfactory one. I heard of no attempts to 497).- I thank LADY RUSSELL for her reply, which “cross out” or get rid of the bow; but one that is, however, not an answer to my query. It was seen alone, or with only an imperfect "watergives some interesting particulars respecting the gull,” was deemed unlucky. In one of the Chaldean family of Pallavicini, but not of the relationship food-stories the bow is called "sign of the great of the members mentioned to the Cardinal of that arches," whether dual or plural I have not heard. name.

E. L. G.
With regard to Lady RUSSELL’s last paragraph,
I had no thought of my own ancestry, when I He had, and has, his place in the island legislature.

BISHOP OF SODOR AND MAN (7th S. x. 487). -
penned my query. It is quite certain that I am. This is why he has no vote in the House of Lords,
not lineally descended from William Lynne, of though in courtesy he is given a seat. However, I
Bassingbourne, Cambridgeshire, who was the first have read this is outside the bar ; and, if so, no
husband of the Protector's mother, since (see my wonder he likes not to sit in it. As to his speak-
own reference to this in fts S. iii. 184) he died the ing, I am not sure ; but it would seem that this
same year (1589) as his only child, an infant is to some extent at least) "interfering in the
daughter. Whether there is any collateral relation.
ship I am quite unable to say. The final e in proceedings" of the House, and therefore that he

cannot speak. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. the name, of course, does not disprove it, as that

Longford, Coventry, termination seems to have been almost optional in those days. But I cannot trace my own ancestry

WORDS IN WORCESTERSHIRE WILLS(70 S. x. 369, further back than to Robert Lynn, of Shotton, | 473).—Chafe-bed. — Not “chaff-bed,” but surely

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