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half-circle back to Hadrah bridge and coursed their now dead-beat jack, Hounds got very close to him here, gaining on him yard by yard. They as he dwelt for a few seconds in some were within a few yards of him when beans. He then broke out on the he dropped into a trench and went east side but swung round left-handed to ground. and pointed his mask for Muennis Bint was put down and we found Woods.

our jack_only to be about 4 feet Hounds were pressing him very hard down. Ten minutes digging with and evidently his heart failed him, so sticks and old Wisdom drew him in he swung right-handed and made for fine style. He was an exceptionally the crops where we first found him. fine big dog jackal. Hounds were now running by view

ENVOI.

The original “ field ” is scat- ing up “dud” ammunition in tered far and wide. The Master a slummy little station with no will re-read these snatches from foxhounds for miles, and no his hunting diary in a camp on horse to ride in these economy. the North-West Frontier. Our axe days) if there were. ruddy-faced whip, scion of a But they are linked for ever line famous alike in the battle- to Sharon's plain by a mask and the hunting-field, is joint or a brush proudly displayed master of a pack in the south over the study-door, and by of India. The General, our mighty hunting talks at the genial field - master, holds an annual dinner, when those who important command at home, followed the Armageddon Hunt but sighs, I fancy, for those get together again. runs in the grass country of And the hunt goes on. Such the Holy Land.

a seed, once planted, grows D— another whip, gets steady and strong.

As long his sport (for wherever he goes, as there are soldiers or exyou may be sure there is hunt- soldiers serving in Palestine, ing of some kind) across the horses to ride, and fox and sandy stretches of Upper jackal sunning themselves on Egypt.

the hillsides of Sharon, there Many are back again at will be hunting in the Holy peace - time jobs: lawyering Land, and the plains where one; another tutoring infant Joshua and his men smote the rajahs; a third patching up Amorites will ring with the invalids, in his best bedside crash of music as the successors manner, at a spa; Bravida, of the Armageddon Hunt“ roll your“ easy-writin'cove," blow- him over."

SIR THOMAS WARNER AND ST CHRISTOPHER.

BY JAMES A. WILLIAMSON.

ON

28th January 1624 by no means quick to seize Thomas Warner and seventeen the advantage. The Huguenot Englishmen landed on St Chris- rovers and the followers of topher and founded the first Drake were well acquainted permanent English colony in with the Windward and Leethe Caribbean Sea—the pioneer ward groups. Yet during the of those fair plantations which whole sixteenth century they played so great a part in the made no attempt at settlement. national economy for two hun- The French made their first dred years, and helped so largely experiments on the mainland to build up the mercantile of America ; and Englishmen wealth and maritime power of also, when they turned their Great Britain. Many of the thoughts to colonisation, folcircumstances attending the lowed the counsels of Ralegh, origin of this enterprise have attempting Virginia and Guiana, remained obscure, and even but neglecting the beautiful its date has been mistaken. In Caribbees. The first generation January 1923 the people of St of English colonists indeed folChristopher carried out a public lowed two will-o'-the-wisps, the celebration of their tercen- westward passage to Asia and tenary ; but, as will be shown, the golden empire of Manoa. they did so not three hundred The first they hoped to attain years but two hundred and through Chesapeake Bay, and ninety - nine years after the the second by way of the event.

Orinoco and the Guiana rivers. The islands of the Lesser Only when these hopes had Antilles were discovered by died did the true basis of EngColumbus in the course of his lish colonisation reveal itself second and third voyages to the pursuit of solid gain by the West. But the Spaniards the plantation of tobacco and never attempted occupation. other products. Virginia, after They were by instinct gold- years of profitless misery, began hunters rather than planters, to ship tobacco in 1613, and and also the warlike Caribs of Bermuda shortly followed her the island chain were much too example. It was, however, formidable for their liking. So from another tobacco enterthe Spaniards passed on trea- prise that the colonisation of sure-seeking to the West, and the Caribbees took its origin. left the smaller islands to their In 1619-the year following successors. These latter, the that of Ralegh's executionEnglish and the French, were there was a change in the

balance of parties at the Eng- 30th April 1620 he sailed from lish Court, and the pro-Spanish Plymouth without permission. faction, which had hunted Ral- With him as a gentlemanegh to his death, was tem- adventurer went Thomas Warporarily driven from power. ner, a Suffolk man of good Taking advantage of this, a family and a friend of John body of peers and courtiers Winthrop, who nine years later obtained from James I. per- was to found the colony of mission to found a colony in Massachusetts. the delta of the river Amazon, The expedition reached the a region claimed by Portugal, Amazon without mishap, aswhose throne was then in the cended the main channel past possession of the King of Spain. the Cabo do Norte, and anThe leading spirit of the enter- chored at the head of the delta. prise was Captain Roger North, There the adventurers built a one of the officers of Ralegh's fort and established a tobacco last expedition, and he became plantation, whilst their pinnace the governor of the new cor- pushed up the great river far poration, which styled itself into the interior. At the end the Amazon Company, and of the year North returned to obtained its letters patent from England with a first cargo of the Crown in September 1619. tobacco. Disaster awaited him.

North intended to go in He found the Company disperson to the Amazon, and solved, its charter confiscated, spent the winter in making James in a wrathful mood, and preparations for a departure Gondomar demanding the head early in the following year. of the chief delinquent. He By April 1620 he was ready, expiated his offence by passing with his ships lying at Ply- the greater part of 1621 in the mouth and his crews engaged. Tower, and was only released Meanwhile the aspect of politics on promising to attempt no had changed once more. Span- more voyages to South America. ish agents and pensioners were The settlers on the Amazon busy at Court, and the Spanish were thus cut off from comambassador, Count Gondomar, munication with England, and absent when the Company had the corporation which was to been chartered, had returned have supported them had ceased to reassert his ascendancy over to exist. Nevertheless they the vacillating mind of James. persevered in their plantation, The result was that the king selling their tobacco to casual refused North permission to Dutch traders who sometimes sail, an evident preliminary to visited the colony. This could the cancellation of the whole not have been very satisfacenterprise. North, however, tory, for we may infer that the was a resolute man. Seeing the Dutchmen, having the whiptrend of affairs, he acted in hand, must have traded on the tradition of Drake. On such terms as secured most of

the profit to themselves. Gon- island where a handful of colondomar also pursued the colony ists could plant tobacco in relentlessly. The Portuguese reasonable security. It needed were already established at to be remote from the Spaniards Pará, on the eastern side of and Portuguese, its natives few the delta; and in 1622-3 he and inoffensive, its soil and sent out orders for the English water - supply good, and its settlement to be attacked and anchorage safe. Grenada and destroyed. The Captain of the large Windward Islands Pará accordingly gathered a would not serve, for they conforce of white men and Indians tained multitudes of Caribs, in canoes, and at some time and were, moreover, right in in 1623 raided North's planta- the track of the Spanish fleets tion, together with some Dutch outward bound to the Main posts in other parts of the and the Gulf of Mexico. Bardelta. The English fort was bados was uninhabited, and taken, and, although most of would have suited the advenits occupants escaped into the turers' purpose very well, but interior, they returned to find they seem not to have known their buildings and crops ruined. of its advantages. It lay well Tobacco-planting on the Ama- to windward of the main chain zon was evidently destined to of islands, and, although occabe an uncertain business. sionally visited, its position was

Thomas Warner took this not accurately laid down upon view, decided that the game the maps of the period. When was not worth the candle, and John Powell landed there in determined to try his fortune 1625 it was to the English elsewhere. He had heard a virtually a new discovery, but good account of the smaller to that we shall refer later. Antilles from a comrade who Warner therefore pushed on to had been there, and in 1622 or the northward, and entered the 1623 he quitted the Amazon Leeward group.

How many with a few associates and made of its units he examined does a tour through the Windward not appear, but he found what and Leeward Islands, seeking he sought in the island of St for a favourable spot. What Christopher, so named by the ship they sailed in and how Spanish explorers more than a they obtained her we do not century before. know. The exact dates of these The main portion of St Chrisevents are also not recover- topher is an oval with its longer able, and it is not absolutely axis running from west-northcertain whether the departure west to east-south-east. To took place before or after the the latter end an irregular outPortuguese raid, although the lier is connected by a long and former is more likely to be the narrow isthmus, the whole truth.

roughly suggesting a tadpole Warner was looking for an with a knot tied in the end of

its tail. The prevailing wind differed from sugar. A sevenis the north-east Trade, so that teenth-century writer calculated the south-west or leeward coast, that one man working on favalthough lacking enclosed har- ourable soil could grow, cure, bours, provided shelter for small and roll about a ton of leaf in ships except during the hurri- a year, besides producing the cane season of the year. A foodstuffs necessary for his own ridge of mountains formed the support. The market price in backbone of the island, and England in 1623 was 58. or between them and the leeward more per lb., of which the shore was a fertile tract watered duties accounted for less than by several streams. The ap- a shilling. A good business, pendage to the island's tail therefore, awaited the enterwas low-lying and contained prising planter. The method salt-ponds, then a valuable mer- of establishing a colony in the cantile commodity. Spanish islands was for the principals navigators commonly avoided to enlist a few agricultural the Leeward group, the passage labourers apiece, engaging them through the Windwards being as servants indentured to work less intricate. The only dis- for a term of years (usually advantage of St Christopher five) in consideration of the was the presence of a small payment of their passage to tribe of Caribs ruled by a chief the colony and their mainnamed Togreman.

tenance whilst in service. At Warner struck up a friend- the end of his time the indenship with the chieftain, and tured servant became a free remained as his guest for some labourer, or might secure some time, his purpose being to ex- vacant land and set up as a plore the island and test the planter in his turn. In this quality of its soil for tobacco. manner St Christopher and planting. Then, in the latter Barbados and other islands part of 1623, he and his party speedily became populated sailed for England to enlist when once the initial steps recruits and financial support had been taken. The recruitfor the founding of a settle- ment of negro slaves required ment.

more capital, and was unTobacco was a very favour- common during the first twenty able commodity upon which years. Their introduction on to start a plantation. It was a large scale into the islands still something of a novelty in coincided with the adoption of Europe, where the demand ex- sugar as a staple crop after ceeded the supply, so that 1640, when large estates and prices continued for some years gang labour superseded the to be high enough to yield a small holdings and petty caphandsome profit. Also, its cul- italism of the tobacco period. tivation required no expensive Warner was evidently in Engequipment, in which respect it land-precise dates are lacking

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