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Are required to be answered by those Masters and Mates who

present themselves for Examination for Certificates from the Board of Trade for their practical knowledge of the


Explain the nature and use of the principal Valves and Cocks

connected with the Boilers and Engines, commencing with the Boilers.


Safety valves.
Reverse or atmospheric valves.
Communication or stop valves.
Feed valves.
Kingston valves.
Blow-off cocks.
Communication cocks.
The water-gauge cocks.
The glass water-gauge.
Steam gauge.
Hand-pump for Boilers.


Throttle valves.
The slide valves.
The expansion valves.
The escape valves on top and bottom of cylinder.
The blow-through valve.
The foot valve.
The delivering valve.
The air-pump bucket valve.
The injection valves and cocks.
Bilge-pump valves and cocks.
Stop or sluice valves to discharge pipes.
Jacket cocks.
The sniffling valves.

BOILERS. 1. If the safety valves were set fast, how would you relieve the pressure 6. Is it requisite to have a hand-pump fitted to the boilers; if so, for

on the boilers, if steam was up and could not make its escape. 2. How do you ascertain the saltness of the water in the boilers. 3. How would you manage to change the water in the boilers, if the

blow-off cocks were set fast. 4. On examining the boilers, and they are found to be thin, what

measures would you adopt to prevent accidents. 5. How would you keep the boiler free from salt and incrustation.

what purpose. 7. Explain the use of the gauge-glasses and gauge-cocks fitted on the

boilers. 8. If the mercury was blown out of the steam-gauge by the pressure of

steam in the boilers, what would you apprehend was the cause. 9. What would you do to relieve the pressure of the boilers. 10. How would you regulate the height or quantity of water in the

boilers. 11. When the steam is up, how is the feed applied to the boilers. 12. When it is not up, what is necessary to be done before the fires are

lighted. 13. When the engines are stopped, what precautions are necessary with

regard to the water in the boiler. 14. What is meant by boiler priming. 15. How would you prevent it doing so. 16. If the water in a boiler is suffered to get too low, what may be the

consequences. 17. What height should the water stand in a common boiler above the

flues. 18. What height should the water stand in a tubular boiler above the

tubes. 19. If any of the tubes were damaged by the fire or leaky, what would

you do, supposing you could not shift them. 20. How do you detect the pressure of steam in a boiler. 21. If the water in a boiler is suffered to get too high, what might be the

consequences. 22. How would you know when the water in the boiler requires changing. 23. Explain the use of the thermometer and hydrometer.


24. Explain the use of the cylinders. 25. Explain the use of the air-pump. 26. Explain the use of the condenser. 27. Explain the use of the eduction pipe. 28. Explain the use of the hot-water cistern. 29. Explain the use of the piston, and how fitted. 30. Explain the use of the stuffing box and glands. 31. Explain the use of the parallel-motion rods. 32. Explain the use of the eccentric, and how fitted. 33. Explain the use of the starting lever. 34. Explain the use of the barometer. 35. Explain the use of the steam gauge. 36. The vessel is alongside the wharf, proceed to get the steam up. 37. When the steam is up, how is it applied to the engine to set it in

motion. 38. What precaution is necessary before the engine is set in motion. 39. How do you start the engine. 40. Is it necessary to move the engine by hand a turn or two before

starting. 41. The engines being started, regulate the injection-cocks, so as to keep

them going at full or reduced speed. 42. What is the use of the injection.


43. How is the vacuum maintained in a condensing engine. 44. How do you know when there is too much injection 45. How do you know when there is not enough injection. 46. If the injection was not shut off when the engines are stopped, what

would happen. 47. If the condenser reject the injection, what would you do. 48. Would it be advantageous if an injection-pipe was fitted so as to take

injection from the bilge if required. 49. If water should get into the cylinder, what might be the consequences. 50. In running free with a heavy sea, and a jump upon the engines, what

precautions would you take to endeavour to prevent damage to the

engines. 51. If one engine was damaged, what would you do in order to proceed. 02. If the eccentric should break, could the engines still be worked. 53. If a bearing becomes heated, what would you do. 54. How would you slow an engine. 55. How would you stop an engine. 56. Wherein does a high pressure differ from a low pressure engine. 57. How do you admit tallow into the cylinders, when the engines are at

work, for the purpose of lubricating the pistons. 58. What is meant by working the engines expansively. 59. How would you disconnect the engines if there was no disconnecting

gear fitted.

60. What is meant by throwing the engines out of gear. 61. Why have two feed-pumps fitted, say one to each engine. 62. Is it requisite to have branch-pipes fitted to the feed pumps; if so,

for what purpose.

The Engineer Examiner should provide drawings and working sections, on a sufficiently large scale, of the various parts of the Steam Engive, and of the valves and slides, &c. as may be necessary, and should require the applicant to make use of them in giving his answers to the various questions put to him; and, if an opportunity offer, the applicant should be permitted, under the guidance of the Engineer, to start and stop an engine of some vessel which may have her steam up.

[Those Masters and liates who intend passing for Steam should study Main and Brown on the Marine Steam Engine, an invaluable book, which treats on all the necessary points requisite for answering the preceding Questions. This, with practice in an Engineer's workshop, or on board a Steamer, will suffice to prepare for Examination.]

"REED'S ENGINEER'S HAND BOOK TO THE MARINE BOARD EXAMINATIONS," although not necessary for this Examination, contains much information valuable to those about to take charge of Steam Ships,

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SCILLY-Bishop Rock..On the rock....

St. Agnes' Rock.. Summit of the island SEVEN STONES It, ves. East side of the rocks LONGSHIPS

On the rock off Land's end Wolf Rock

Lighthouse building LIZARD

..On the cliff Falmouth

.. St. Anthony's Point EDDYSTONE

....On the rock..
Plymouth Harbour . West Barbican pier head

.On West end of Breakwater..

West side of entrance

Pier head... Brixham

Pier head.. Teignmouth

. South-west end of the Denn SHAMBLES SHOAL

Light Vessel ....On the east end of the shoal PORTLAND

On the breakwater.

Near the Bill Weymouth

. South pier head Poole

North side of entrance

. On the outer rock
ST. CATHERINE. ..On the point
BEMBRIDGE light ves. Near the Nab rock
Warner Light Vessel .... West side of the channel

On the pier

In the Castle Calshot Light Vessel Off Calshot Castle. Southampton

Royal pier
Hurst Beach

On the beach off Hurst point
OWERS Light Vessel .. South-east end of the shoals
Littlehampton.. . Eastern pier

Opposite entrance of harbour

East pier & West pier BEACHY HEAD .Belletout cliff

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..On the quay




DESCRIPTION. VARNE Light Vessel .. West end of shoal ...... 1 quick rev. DUNGENESS

. Extreme point (Mag-Electric.) 1 fixed Folkestone .South pier head

1 Dover Extreme of west pier

1 blue Near the clock tower


green. SOUTH FORELAND ..On the head


Light Vessel..Off S. end of Goodwin sand.... 1 GULL STREAM lt. ves. Middle of Gull Stream

1 rev. 20 sec. NORTH SAND HEAD Light Vessel..Off north end of do.

3 fixed NORTH FORELAND ..On the head

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PRINCIPAL HEADLANDS, &c. in the BRITISH CHANNEL, with the Depths of Water Ships should stand to in the Shore and the Offing.



in miles.


Ofing fathoms.

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From the N. Foreland to N. Sand head SE IS 64
South Foreland to Dungeness.

WSW W 201 12 & 14 16 Dungeness to Beachy Head..

WIN 29 12 & 18 20 Beachy Head to Owers light

W by N 35 18 28 to Dunnose

W by N 55 18 30 Dunnose to St. Catherine's Point WIN St. Catherine's point to St. Alban's head WNTV 29 22 35

to the Bill of Portland! W by N N 44 22 36 The Bill of Portland to Berry Head .. WNW &W 40 to the Start

WN 49 27 36 Bolt Kead to the Rame Head..

NW 18 to the Eddystone

WNW { W 18 32 46 to the Lizard

W&N 56 Rame Head to the Lizard

WS 43 40 46 Lizard to the Rundle Stone.

NW W 18 46 to the Wolf Rock

WNW 23 The Longships to the Wolf Rock

SW 71 to St. Agnes' Light West, nearly | 25 to the Seven Stones WNW 15 to the Brisons

NE IN 3}


Note.--The Mid-channel Compass Course is East and by South, and West and by North.

Westerly Variation-Scilly 231°; Portland 214°; South Foreland 20°.

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