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The same Adjustment by the SUN.
Place the Index near 0°, (do not clamp it,) screw in a Telescope, and look at the Sun; move the Index backwards and forwards past 0°, the reflected Sun will pass and repass the direct Sun; if, in passing, they exactly cover each other, (that is, form one Sun,) the Horizon-glass is perpendicular; if not, they must be made to do so by the screws at the back of the Horizon-glass.
3rd. To set the plane of the Horizon-glass parallel to the plane of the Index-glass when the arrow or nonius is at 0.
Bring the arrow or nonius to 0 on the Arch, and, holding the Quadrant vertically, observe whether the real and the reflected horizons form one unbroken line; if so, the glasses are parallel ; if not, they must be made to form one line by means of the screw placed underneath the Horizon-glass.
The same Adjustment by the SUN.
Clamp the Index exactly at 0°, look through the Telescope at the Sun; if the true and reflected Suns are exactly covering each other, (so that only one is seen,) the two glasses are parallel. Any error may either be corrected by the adjusting screw or Index Error, (which is the amount of error in this adjustment,) or may be measured as directed before, and applied to all observations.
4th. To set the axis of the Telescope parallel to the plane of the Sextant.
Screw in the Inverting Telescope, and set a pair of its wires parallel to the Sextant-plane; select two heavenly objects, such as the moon and sun, or the moon and a star, or two stars, but let them be from 90° to 120° apart; bring one object to touch the other on the lower wire of the Telescope, and, by moving the whole Sextant, quickly bring the objects to the upper wire. If the objects remain in contact with each other as before, the Telescope is parallel. The separating or overlapping of the objects shews an error, which must be corrected by the screws in the Telescope ring.
Is an agreement between a merchant and an owner or master for the conveyance of certain specified goods at a certain fixed rate, according to the description of goods to be carried, and on conditions contained therein, from one port or place to another. A Charter-party made in England should always be stamped, or it cannot be produced as evidence in any court of law; and the master should always receive a certified copy of the original Charter. A Charter-party may be transferred by endorsment, and the master is still bound to carry out the agreement.
Is the amount paid to the owner or master by the shipper or consignee for the carriage of goods from one port or place to another, on the terms mentioned in the Charter-party. Dead freight is compensation made to the ship, when the merchant does not supply a sufficient quantity of cargo to fill the vessel, and it should always be claimed at the port of loading; and if not paid, a protest should be made before sailing.
A BILL OF LADING
Is a receipt signed by the master, and held by the shipper of the cargo, and should contain the date of shipment, description and quantity of goods, by whom shipped, and where they are to be delivered. Masters should be careful in signing Bills of Lading to know that they have the exact weight, quantity, or quality of goods as entered therein; and should they have any doubt on these points, before signing they should insert the words, quantity, quality, weight, or contents unknown, as the case may require. There are usually three Bills of Lading, one for the captain, one for the shipper, and the other is transmitted by the merchant, to his agent or consignee. All bills of lading in England require to be stamped, except un-signed copies. They can be transferred by endorsement in the same manner as a Charter-party, and the captain must deliver his cargo to the holder of his Bill of Lading, taking proper security, by holding a portion of the cargo, or otherwise, for the payment of the freight.
Is a description of the cargo on board ship, stating the quantity, quality, weight, or measure, and the marks, numbers, and contents of all packages, also the freight, insurance, and any other charges due thereon.
Is a document signed by the master, which should contain a full and complete description of the cargo, if in packages, the number and marks of each, when and by whom shipped, and where and to whom to be delivered. In many foreign ports, it is also necessary to give the names of the crew, and a list of all the stores on board; in some places, even the ballast must be entered in the Manifest, or the vessel is subjected to a heavy fine.
Is a deposition made before a Notary Public by the master in any case where difficulty arises with a merchant about nonshipment of cargo, demurrage, or any breach of Charter-party. A Protest against wind and weather," should always be noted on arrival in port, and if the vessel has experienced heavy weather and received damage to ship or cargo, the Protest should be extended; that is, a full and complete account of the cause and nature of the damage received should be given, which should be signed by the master and at least one of the crew. An extended Protest is always necessary to recover any average either on behalf of the ship, cargo or freight.
Is of two kinds, general and particular. Under general average comes all expenses incurred for the mutual benefit of ship, cargo, and freight; such as the cost of steamboats, pilotage, assistance, agency, &c., and to which all the interests concerned have to contribute their proportion. Particular average denotes any damage not being a total loss, which happens to one interest concerned, and which must be borne by that interest alone.
A Bottomry Bond is a mortgage or pledging of the ship's bottom for money advanced for the use of the ship for repairs necessary to enable the vessel to proceed to her destination, when the captain cannot obtain money by other means. Bottomry Bond must be the first thing paid on arrival at port of destination; and in case of more than one Bond having been given, the last must be paid first. The premium varies from 10 to 30 per cent., and is sometimes even more. When the value of the ship is not considered by the person who advances the money as sufficient security, the master (being able to raise money by no other means) may also pledge the cargo. If the ship should be lost before reaching her port of destination, the lender loses both his money and interest.
REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING COLLISIONS
Contained in the Merchant Shipping Act Amendment Act, 1862.
Section 25.-On and after the first day of June, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, or such later day as may be fixed for the purpose by order in Council, the Regulations contained in the Table marked (C.) in the Schedule hereto shall come into operation and be of the same force as if they were enacted in the body of this Act; but Her Majesty may, from time to time, on the joint recommendation of the Admiralty and the Board of Trade, by order in Council, annul or modify any of the said Regulations, or make new Regulations in addition thereto or in substitution therefor; and any alterations in or additions to such Regulations made in manner aforesaid, shall be of the same force as the Regulations in the said Schedule.
TABLE (C.) Article 1.-In the following Rules, every Steam Ship which is under sail and not under steam, is to be considered a Sailing Ship; and every Steam Ship which is under steam, whether under sail or not, is to be considered a Ship under Steam.
RULES CONCERNING LIGHTS.
2.-The Lights mentioned in the following Articles, and no others, shall be carried in all weathers between sunset and sunrise.
3.-Sea-going Steam Ships when under way shall carry:
At the Foremast Head, a bright White Light, so fixed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an arc of the horizon of 20 points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the Light 10 points on each side of the ship, viz. from right ahead to 2 points abaft the beam on either side, and of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least five miles.
On the Starboard Side, a Green Light, so constructed as to throw an uniform and unbroken Light over an arc of the horizon of 10 points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the
Light from right ahead to 2 points abaft the beam on the starboard side, and of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles.
On the Port Side, a Red Light, so constructed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an arc of the horizon of 10 points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the Light from right ahead to 2 points abaft the beam on the port side, and of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles.
The said Green and Red Side Lights shall be fitted with inboard Screens projecting at least three feet forward from the Light, so as to prevent these Lights from being seen across the bow.
4.-Steam ships, when towing other ships, shall carry Two bright White Mast-head Lights vertically, in addition to their Side Lights, so as to distinguish them from other Steam Ships. Each of these Mast-head Lights shall be of the same construction and character as the Mast-head Lights which other Steam Ships are required to carry.
5.-Sailing Ships under weigh, or being towed, shall carry the same Lights as Steam Ships under weigh, with the exception of the White Mast-head Lights, which they shall never carry.
6.-Whenever, as in the case of small vessels during bad weather, the Green and Red Lights cannot be fixed, these Lights shall be kept on deck on their respective sides of the vessel ready for instant exhibition, and shall, on the approach of or to other vessels, be exhibited on their respective sides in sufficient time to prevent collision, in such manner as to make them most visible, and so that the Green Light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the Red Light on the starboard side.
To make the use of these portable Lights more certain and easy, they shall each be painted outside with the colour of the Light they respectively contain, and shall be provided with suitable Screens.
7.-Ships, whether Steam Ships or Sailing Ships, when at anchor in roadsteads or fairways, shall between sunset and sunrise exhibit, where it can best be seen, but at a height not exceeding twenty feet above the hull, a White Light in a globular lantern of eight inches in diameter, and so constructed