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of intractable anomalies, are symptoms which can scarcely be mistaken. It is not surprising therefore, that the exceptions taken to Lee's bold and startling views, are any thing but masterly. Even where we cannot agree with the grammarian, we have no hesitation in dissenting from the critic. So much for the questions which relate to Hebrew Gram

With regard to them, Professor Lee is on the vantage ground, and in repelling criticism, he was, perhaps, at liberty to use strong terms. But when he comes to make an application of the self-same principles to Arabic, and to identify the vindication of his own Hebrew Grammar with the condemnation of the Grammaire Arabe, his strides become too bold. We do not deny the affinity of the languages, and the identity of many forms and idioms. We do not even question Lee's assertion, that in the end, the phenomena of both may be reduced substantially to the same principles and standard. But the end is not yet come. Data ought surely to precede conclusions. It is here that we draw the line between Arabic and Hebrew. The Hebrew, which is studied in our schools of learning, is the Hebrew of the Bible. The whole of it is shut up in a single volume. Abundant time has been afforded for research, comparison, and combination, within bounds so narrow. It is easy to bring theories and systems to the test. A Bible and a concordance furnish the student with a pair of balances in which to weigh his grammar and his lexicon. The data being thus provided, let conclusions follow. Now if De Sacy's Grammar had professed to teach the Arabic of the Koran or Hariri only, the plan which he adopted would have been preposterous. With all the facts before him, a neglect to generalise would only have marked his own unfitness for the task. But the case was otherwise. He was to ascertain the principles which govern the formation and the usage of a language, which, as yet, was known but partially. How could this be performed without a copious and accurate induction of particulars? These particulars were to be found, not in one book, nor in the few which, at that time, had been printed, but in libraries, whole libraries, of history, philosophy, romance, and poetry, as well as in the usus loquendi of a hundred nations, from the Niger to the Indus. He might casily have started with a bold hypothesis, and by convulsive efforts have adapted facts to it, or it to facts; but what would have ensued ? The bubble would have burst, and De Sacy might, by this time, have been quite forgotten.

Upon these grounds we defend the Grammaire Arabe, as it appeared at first; both plan and execution. Upon the same grounds we are disappointed in its new appearance: not that the phenomena could all have been observed; for even yet how much remains to be decyphered and explained. But we must confess, that from the supplemental reading of near twenty years we looked for some approximation to philosophical arrangement, founded not on mere hypothesis, but on the comparison of facts already ascertained and stated. There are clear indications, it is true, of diligent and unremitted study, in the multiplication of examples and occasional changes in the phraseology. What was stated in the first edition as a strange anomaly, is now admitted among usual forms. What was hinted at as doubtful, is affirmed as certain; what was censured as inaccurate, is recognised as genuine, and vice versâ what was laid down positively, is expunged or qualified.* It should also be mentioned, that the author has precluded the necessity of not a few additional details, by frequent reference to works which have appeared in this department of philology since his first edition. Among these may be named his own Chrestomathy and its sequel the Anthology,t together with the Arabic scholia upon various authors, which have been edited, within the above named period, by different orientalists. With respect to this last invaluable source of philological improvement, a very marked and gratifying change has taken place, since the first appearance of De Sacy's Grammar, and partly in consequence of the new impulse given by that work to the study of the language. In a note to the first edition, (Vol. II. p. 379) these words occur: “il est fàcheux que tout ce qui a été imprimé de scolies jusqu'à present, du moins la plus grande partie, soit défiguré par des fautes innombrables. Ou fera mieux d'étudier quelques chapitres du commentaire de l'Alcoran par Beidhawi.” In the new edition (Vol. II. p. 510) these words are omitted, and the following inserted: "aujourdhui les moyens ne man

Compare “je doute fort de la vérité de cette observation," (I. 740, 1st ed.) with “ cette observation est fausse, et n'a aucun fondement,” (I. 930, 2d ed.) See also the frank“j'ai eu tort,” of vol. II. $ 472, (2d ed.) and the positive " je persiste à croire,” of the old edition, (II. 240,) which is omitted in the new. Many similar examples might be added.

+ Chrestomathie Arabe, ou Extraits de divers écrivains Arabes, tant en prose qu'en vers, avec une Traduction Française, et des Notes. 2d ed., Paris, 1826.

Anthologie Grammaticale Arabe, ou morceaux choisis, de divers auteurs Arabes, avec une Traduction Française, et des Notes. 1829.

quent plus pour s'exercer à cette étude.” Among the publications which have wrought this change, may be mentioned as among the most important, De Sacy's own magnificent Hariri,* and Freytag's edition of the Hamasa,t to which he constantly refers his readers, as well as to the Moallakat, edited by Menil, Vullers, Kosegarten, Hengstenberg, and others. Proceeding on the principle of mere detail, it is obvious that our author was exempted, by this change in the resources of the student, from the obligation to enlarge his Grammar, which would otherwise exist. That it did not rather lead him to modify his plan, though it may appear surprising, can scarcely be regretted, as the Baron's strength so evidently lies in the laborious arrangement of details. It may be, that the lively and ingenious mind of Ewald, when brought to work upon De Sacy's rich materials, will produce, or rather has produced, a Grammar vastly better than either by himself could be expected to construct. Our only fear is, that in attempting to supply the Baron's lack of philosophy, the new cloth will take too much from the old garment, and the rent be made worse.

There is one improvement in the Grammaire Arabe which must not be overlooked. The second volume is enlarged by the addition of near fifty pages, on the subject of Prosody and Versification. This topic was omitted in the first edition, perhaps, because it had been somewhat overlooked in the author's private studies. It is stated by Ewald, in his Latin treatise on this subject, that the Arabic verses printed in the early publications of De Sacy, abound in false quantity and metrical anomalies. I It may have been this criticism which occasioned the addition to the Grammar now in question. So far as we have seen, however, Ewald's little work is neither cited nor referred to.

On the whole, the value of the work does not seem to be remarkably enhanced, nor does the proprietor appear to have expected that the second edition would displace the first, for we see that he has advertised the treatise on Prosody for sale apart, in order to accommodate the former purchasers.

* Les Séances de Hariri, publiée en Arabe, avec un commentaire choisi, par M. le Baron Silvestre de Sacy. Paris, 1822, folio.

+ Hamasæ Carmina, cum Tebrisii scholiis, primum edidit, indicibus instruxit, versione Latina, et commentario illustravit, G. G. Freytag. Bonn. 4to.

De metris carminum arabicorum libri duo. Auctore G. H. A. Ewald. Brunsvige. 1825. p. 139.

VOL. IV. No. IV.-1A


Or the Emigrant's and Traveller's Guide to the West ; con

taining a general description of that entire country, &c. fc. pp. 341, 12mo. H. S. Tanner, Philadelphia, 1832.

This is an excellent book, on a subject of great interest at the present time. Information of the kind it contains, is not only very much needed, but very much desired.

We have our attention here directed to a portion of the world, which, in whatever light it be regarded, must awaken many interesting reflections.

No one can cast his eye over the map of this continent, without being struck with the almost unexampled advantages in many respects possessed by the great Valley of the Mississippi. Accordingly, we find that it is attracting the attention of the whole civilized world. The European, especially, of the middle or lower ranks, casts many a wishful look to that fertile and extensive region, where he may find a peaceful retreat from the confusion and oppression of his native land. The American people feel a still deeper interest in what all expect to see the abiding place of our national strength. The patriot's bosom glows, as he calculates its immense resources, and its high promise; the politician estimates, with keen-sighted sagacity, the probabilities of the balance of power being cast, ere long, west of the Alleghany; and the philanthropist looks westward, too, as a theatre for the execution of his benevolent plans and purposes. But, especially to the Christian is the west an object of interest. As he views this nation born almost in a day, and springing forward to the full maturity of manhood, almost before he realizes the fact of its existence, and promising future increase which imagination can scarcely paint, he inquires with deep concern, what is to be its moral character; its influence upon the welfare and progress of the Church of God?

Feelings and inquiries of this kind, we confess, are the first which arise in our minds, every time our attention is turned to the Valley of the Mississippi; and we are glad to see the book before us, for the additional reason to the one already mentioned, that it furnishes many facts which enable us to give replies to those inquiries, and, as Christians, and especially as Christian reviewers, to form an opinion as to the Church's duty to that part of our country. This work deserves the more special attention, as it is written in a Christian spirit, and abounds in serious reflections; and also, as it gives an accurate view of the various means of instruction and improvement now in operation in the Valley of the Mississippi.

“ The Emigrant’s and Traveller's Guide” we would, therefore, recommend to all who desire to be made acquainted with that region. The author, who, we are at liberty to state, is the Rev. Robert Baird, General Agent for the American Sunday School Union, and who has had the most advantageous opportunities for several years, of recording observations on the western country, has, under the modest title which he has chosen, given us a satisfactory and interesting picture of it. He has not attempted originality, but has freely used, in the preparation of his work, the statements of those who have written on the same subjects before him. His object, as stated in the preface is, “ to give a brief, and yet satisfactory account of this vast country;" and his desire has been, to embody in as small a compass as possible, such information as he deems most desirable and useful to the community. He has had especially in his eye three classes of per

1. Those who desire to remove to the west, and there cast their lot; and for their benefit, many of his observations and statements of facts are intended. 2. Those who purpose to travel for amusement, health, or business, west of the mountains. 3. A third class to whom the author hopes his book may be useful, is composed of those who, while they remain at home, desire to know more about that great country, interesting in so many respects to us all. For all these the work is well calculated.

The author begins his view of the western country in his second chapter, by informing us of the existence commonly unobserved, of a great central valley in North America, extending from the Gulf of Mexico, on the south, to the Northern Ocean, and bounded east by the Alleghany mountains, as far as Canada, and then a line of hills, extending farther to the north, and on the west by the Oregon, or Rocky Mountains, which extend from the Isthmus of Darien, 2500 miles in a northern direction. This immense basin, or valley, containing upwards of four millions of square miles, embraces four smaller vallies, distinct from each other, and of different sizes : that of the St. Lawrence; that of numerous streams running into Hudson's Bay; the valley of M-Ken


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