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over education vested in governing bodies of school districts. For example, the authorization “to do all things necessary for the best interests of the school" could be construed as allowing them to do this. However, as a matter of practice it is well known that many school districts are unable to do so because of lack of funds.

Table 1.Legal provisions for the establishment of school libraries in 21 States'

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Arizona “Any" school district.

"May establish and maintain" district Board of trustees.

(a) “District” board of trustees. “May” maintain libraries

District board of education.
(6) "City” board of education..


City board of education.
District with 4-year high school “Must provide” libraries..

School district.
County school district.

“Authorized and empowered to establish County board of public instruc

and maintain” adequate libraries and tion.

library services. Idaho.

"Every school district” except inde- “Shall spend funds” for establishment and School district trustees.

pendent and joint independent Class maintenance of school libraries.

A districts. Illinois (a) District with fewer than 1,000 “Authorized” to furnish libraries.

Board of directors. inhabitants and not governed by

special act. (6) District between 1,000 and 100,000 “Shall have the power and it shall be their Board of education,

inhabitants and not governed by duty" to furnish libraries.

special acts.
(c) Community consolidated school do.

(d) Township high-school district_


Board of directors.
(e) Special charter district

“Each school house district”.
“Ought to be established".

People of "school house dis

trict. 1 Limited to States in which laws expressly provide that libraries shall be established.


Table 1.-Legal provisions for the establishment of school libraries in 21 States-Continued

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New Jersey -

School district.


New York,

(a) “Township’ school district.

Authorized to establish and maintain'

district library. (6) “Third class” school district

“Authorized to establish and maintain or

continue" a library. “Any” school district

“May provide” library facilities.. “Any public school” in district that has Compulsory if district wishes to receive

raised funds for establishment of State grant.

school library. (a) “Any” school district

Authorized to vote a tax for the establish

ment and maintenance" of a school

(6) "City" school district

Authorized to establish and maintain

libraries.' Any” school district.

“May provide for the establishment, con

а trol, and maintenance” of a school library

or libraries.
“Every” school district

“May establish and maintain” libraries.
See column 4.

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Pennsylvania -
Rhode Island.

Board of school directors.
State director of education

"shall assist in establish

ment" of school libraries. County board of education.

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1 State board of education shall promote the establishment of libraries throughout the State.

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Financial support

Laws in 33 States (listed in column 1 of table 2) expressly provide financial support for school libraries. The types of districts or schools affected in the 33 States are given in column 2 of table 2. In order to avoid misinterpretation in listing these districts and schools, the plan used in column 2 of table 1 is followed here, namely, to enclose in quotation marks the terms used in the law.

One very important point about the laws relating to financial support for school libraries is whether they are compulsory or optional. Owing to the difficulty of determining this from the phraseology, the attempt to do so has not been made, and instead, the exact wording of the law has been given, just as in the case of table 1, column 3. Whether the phrase, “duty of trustees” to apportion money to libraries should be interpreted as compulsory and whether "authorized” to approve the purchase of library books should be interpreted as optional is often a matter which only a court decision or a ruling of an attorney general can decide.

The sources of funds for financial support of school libraries, as provided by law, have been placed in three categories—district, county, and State (columns 4, 5 and 6, table 2). In some instances it is difficult to determine the source because of the overlapping of funds. For example, the laws of Iowa provide that the money withheld by the county auditor for school libraries shall be taken from the “apportionment” of the several school districts. The “apportionment” referred to comes from three sources: The proceeds of the county-wide property tax, the interest on the State permanent school fund which is distributed through counties, and the proceeds of fines from violations of State penal laws. In this case the source was designated as State and the explanation made under a note in the State digest. (See Iowa digest, p. 72.) Iowa has also another source of funds for school libraries which is the "general school fund” of the district. This is undoubtedly made up of funds from district, county, and State sources, but was designated as district.

An examination of columns 4, 5, and 6 of table 2, shows that in the
following 12 States the source of funds appears to be district only:
New York


North Dakota Vermont

Wyoming In 4 States it is county only—Nevada, South Dakota, Washington, and West Virginia; in 3, State only--California, Louisiana, and North Carolina. It is from both district and county in 4 States-Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, and Oregon; district and State in 7—Connecticut, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Wisconsin; district, county, and State in 2—South Carolina and Virginia ; and county and State in 1-Florida.

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