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of Edward IV., which brings Richard closer to his single object of desire—the Crown. False peace, with malice in its words, falsehood in other forms, cloaked with hypocrisy- to the children, to his mother, to Buckingham, his friend--show Richard full of danger, as the citizens believe who speak of Edward's death. Says one of them :
“ By a divine instinct men's minds mistrust
Ensuing danger; as, by proof, we see
In the Third Act the throne is won by murder and hypocrisy. Rivers, Grey, and Vaughan are swept away. Hastings, triumphing in their fate, blindly meets his own. Religion is the last cloak worn to win the Crown.
In the Fourth Act, since Edward's children live, the cup of iniquity is filled full by the usurper's murder of the children. The Act is opened with the tender wail of women, and there comes with it an indication that even Richard, who has shut out of his heart regard for God and man, cannot shut out the thoughts by which his dreams are tortured. Hard cruelty, false friendship, that throws Buckingham aside when he is no more helpful to selfish ends, precede the joining in one thought the murder of the children in the Tower with the marrying of their sister Elizabeth. That marriage may make
sure the holding of the Crown; to which end, there. fore, he is also preparing to destroy his wife Anne. The reader's mind is filled with the pity of the murder of the children. Then Margaret is again upon
the scene, the wail of women is renewed, the day of retribution is at hand. As Richard marches to meet Richmond, the wail of the women rises to a curse, and the close of it is the curse of his mother.
When Richard, after this, uses his cloak of hypocrisy to secure his desired union with the young Princess Elizabeth, and succeeds in the temptation of her mother, he can swear to his sincerity by nothing that he had not dishonoured and profaned :
“ K. Rich. Now, by the worldQ. Eliz.
'Tis full of thy foul wrongs.
Thy life hath that dishonoured.
THYSELF IS SELF MISUSED.
In the Fifth Act, which fulfils Margaret's curse, and brings home full retribution, when the two tents of Richard and Richmond are shown side by side (Richard committing himself to his earthly guards, and Richmond committing himself, before he sleeps, in prayer to God), again the motive of the play has vigorous expression. Richard, awaking in fear from his tortured sleep, exclaims :
“What, do I fear myself? There's none else by.
RICHARD LOVES RICHARD, THAT I8 I Am I."
Richmond, in exhorting his men before the fight says :
“God and our good cause fight upon our side.”
Richard has no such note in exhortation. He says:
“Our strong arms be our conscience, swords our law.”
Grant that there can be a man dead to all sympathies and sense of kin, whose only creed is “I am I;" whose actions are absolutely selfish, unrestrained by pity, love, or fear; and Shakespeare's King Richard III. sets forth the tragedy of such a death in life.
KING RICHARD THE THIRD.
DRAMATIS PERSON Æ.
SIR JAMES TYRREL.
King Edward V., to the SIR WILLIAM CATESBY. RICHARD, Duke of King. SIR JAMES BLOUNT. York,
SIR WALTER HERBERT. GEORGE, Duke of
SIR ROBERT BRAKENBURY,
Lieutenant of the Tower. RICHARD, Duke of
CHRISTOPHER URSWICK, a
to the Gloster, afterwards
Priest. Another Priest. King Richard III.,
TRESSEL and BERKELEY, ato A young Son of Clarence.
tending on Lady Anne. HENRY, Earl of Richmond, Lord Mayor of London. afterwards King Henry Sheriff of Wiltshire. VII.
ELIZABETH, Queen to King CARDINAL BOUROHIER, Arch- Edward IV. bishop of Canterbury.
MARGARET, Widow of King THOMAS ROTHERHAM, Arch- Henry VI. bishop of York.
DUCHESS OF YORK, Mother to JOHN MORTON, Bishop of Ely. King Edward IV. DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM.
LADY ANNE, Widow of Ed. DUKE OF NORFOLK.
ward, Prince of Wales, Son EARL OF SURREY, his Son. to King Henry VI. ; ufterEARL RIVERS, Brother to wards married to Richard. Elizabeth.
A young Daughter of Clarence MARQUIS OF DORSET and (MARGARET PLANTAGENET).
LORD GREY, Sons to Eliza- Ghosts of those murdered hy beth.
Richard III., Loras and EARL OF OXFORD.
other Attendants ; a Pur. LORD HASTINGS.
suivant, Scrivener, Citizens, LORD STANLEY.
Murderers, Messengers, Sol. LORD LOVEL
diers, doc. SCENE-ENGLAND).
ACT I. SCENE I.-London. A Street. Enter RICHARD, Duke of GLOSTER, solus. Glo. Now is the winter of our discontent Made glorious summer by this sun of York; And all the clouds that loured upon our house In the deep bosom of the ocean buried. Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths; Our bruised arms hung up for monuments; Our stern alarums changed to merry meetings, Our dreadful marches to delightful measures. Grim-visaged War hath smoothed his wrinkled front; And now, instead of mounting barbéd steeds To fright the souls of fearful adversaries, He capers nimbly in a lady's chamber To the lascivious pleasing of a lute. But I, that am not shaped for sportive tricks, Nor made to court an amorous looking-glass; I, that am rudely stamped, and want love's majesty To strut before a wanton ambling nymph; I, that am curtailed of this fair proportion, Cheated of feature by dissembling nature, Deformed, unfinished, sent before my time Into this breathing world, scarce half made up And that so lamely and unfashionable That dogs bark at me as I halt by them ;Why, I, in this weak piping time of peace, Have no delight to pass away the time, Unless to spy my shadow in the sun And descant nn mine own deformity :