Categorization and Naming in Children: Problems of Induction

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MIT Press, 1989 - 250 páginas

In this landmark work on early conceptual and lexical development, Ellen Markman explores the fascinating problem of how young children succeed at the task of inducing concepts. Backed by extensive experimental results, she challenges the fundamental assumptions of traditional theories of language acquisition and proposes that a set of constraints or principles of induction allows children to efficiently integrate knowledge and to induce information about new examples of familiar categories.

 

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Página 42 - Look for example at board-games, with their multifarious relationships. Now pass to card-games; here you find many correspondences with the first group, but many common features drop out, and others appear. When we pass next to ballgames, much that is common is retained, but much is lost. — Are they all 'amusing'?
Página 42 - Consider for example the proceedings that we call 'games'. I mean board-games, card-games, ball-games, Olympic games, and so on. What is common to them all? - Don't say: 'There must be something common, or they would not be called "games'" - but look and see whether there is anything common to all. - For if you look at them you will not see something that is common to all, but similarities, relationships, and a whole series of them at that.
Página 42 - And the result of this examination is: we see a complicated network of similarities overlapping and criss-crossing: sometimes overall similarities, sometimes similarities of detail. 67. I can think of no better expression to characterize these similarities than 'family resemblances'; for the various resemblances between members of a family: build, features, colour of eyes, gait, temperament, etc. etc., overlap and criss-cross in the same way. - And I shall say: 'games...
Página 42 - amusing " ? Compare chess with noughts and crosses. Or is there always winning and losing, or competition between players ? Think of patience. In ball games there is winning and losing ; but when a child throws his ball at the wall and catches it again, this feature has disappeared. Look at the parts played by skill and luck ; and at the difference between skill in chess and skill in tennis. Think now of games like ring-a-ring-a-roses ; here is the element of amusement, but how many other characteristic...
Página 120 - When the adjective follows the noun, the adjective expresses all the inflectional categories of the noun. In such cases the noun may lack overt expression of one or all of these categories.
Página 20 - ... should be resoluble by a little supplementary pointing and questioning? Consider, then, how. Point to a rabbit and you have pointed to a stage of a rabbit, to an integral part of a rabbit, to the rabbit fusion, and to where rabbithood is manifested.
Página 91 - ... describe something as a lemon, or as an acid, I indicate that it is likely to have certain characteristics (yellow peel, or sour taste in dilute water solution, as the case may be) ; but I also indicate that the presence of those characteristics, if they are present, is likely to be accounted for by some 'essential nature' which the thing shares with other members of the natural kind.
Página 189 - That is, when children are faced with a set of alternative structures fulfilling the same function, they should assume that only one of the structures is correct unless there is direct evidence that more than one is necessary.
Página 87 - While, if any one were to propose for investigation the common properties of all things which are of the same color, the same shape, or the same specific gravity, the absurdity would be palpable.
Página 87 - There is no impropriety in saying that of these two classifications, the one answers to a much more radical distinction in the things themselves than the other does, etc.

Acerca del autor (1989)

Ellen M. Markman is Professor of Psychology at Stanford University.

Información bibliográfica