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J. & G. Thomson • Enging., vol. lviii. p. 199

* Enging.,' vol. lv. p. 611
Cramp & Son Enging.,' vol. Ix. p. 600
Fairfield Co. * Enging.,' liii. p. 11, lv. p. 700

• Enging.,' vol. Iv. p. 901
Soc. Las Astilluos *Enging., vol. lvii. p. 803
Doxford

1 Maw. cxix.

'Enging.,' vol. xxxv. p. 338 London&Glasgow 'Enging., vol. lx. p. 539 Napier

vol. lii. p. 586
Denny

vol. lii. p. 39
Harland & Wolff

vol. Iviii.

p. 699 ( Maw, clxii. Scott

| Enging.,' vol. xxxvi. p. 511
Napier

Maw, v.
* Enging.,' vol. xxxii. p. 276

Maw, xxxiii.
('lark

* Enging.,' vol. xxxiii. p. 51 D. Rollo

vol. xvi. p. 207
D. J. Dunlop&Co.

vol. xvii. p. 197
Barrow

'Engr.,' vol. Ixiii. p. 290
Elder

Maw, xcv.
Jack

• Enging.,' vol. xli. p. 271

vol. lv. p. 694
Fawcett Preston

vol. li. p. 525
Earles

Maw, cli.
Doxford

cxviii.
Vulcan
* Enging.,' vol. I. p.

188
Doxford

vol. xlii. p. 543
German

* Engr.,' vol. lxiv. p. 516 Richardson

vol. Ixix, p. 420 | Palmers

vol. xlix. p. 476

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Vessel's Name

Builder

* Kensington
U.S. Olympia
U.S. Minneapolis
H.M.S. 'Edgar,' • Hawk
H.M.S. Gibraltar
• Infanta Maria Theresa
• Hanoverian
Sylvania
Ophir'
* Scot

Norman
* Teucer, 'Orestes,' &c.

• Parisian

• Mexican

Iberia
• Delaware

* Oroya'

"Arizona
| Kathleen Mavourneen

H.M.S. • Sybille
• Indra
'Assyrian Monarch

Grecian'
"Kaiser W. II.'
Golconda' (ex Nulli

Secunda ').

· Tartar H.M.S. Barracouta

2613

Funnel 69ft. 94

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97
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180

12 1650
63 2170
60 2118
60 | 1872
69 2350
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1900
76 1870

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H.M.S.Malacca

J. Penn & Son Enging.,' vol. lvii. p. 463 • Kensington J. & G. Thomson

vol, lviii, p. 199
H.M.S. ' Renown'
( Maudslay, Sons !

vol. Ix. p. 79

& Field }
U.S. Olympia

vol. lv. p. 611
H.M.S. Crescent

vol. lv. p. 695
'Infanta Maria Theresa Soc.Las Astilluos

vol. lvii. p. 805
H.M.S. Monarch

vol, Iv. p. 694
H.M.S. “ Royal Oak'. Laird Bros.

vol, lvii. p. 515
H.M.S. Royal Sovereign

vol. Iv. p. 695
Italian 'Sicilia
Ansaldo & Co.

vol. lxi. p. 314
* Isle of Dursey
Wallsend

vol. xxxvii. Ophir' Napier

vol. lii.

P.

587
Norman
Harland & Wolff

vol. Iviii. p. 699.
County of Salop'
Barrow

vol. xx.xviii. p. 567
• Main

Palmers

Engr.,' vol. Ixix. p. 330 * Lynx,' ' Antelope,'

Laird

'Enging.,' vol. xlix. p. 699
I.R.N. 'Sinope
Napier

vol. 1. p. 81
Tod McGregor Maw, viii.
Hunstanton, Godiva,'&c. Westgarth English Enging.,' vol. xxxvii. p. 473
' City of San Francisco Roach

. Maw, clví.
Inchdune

Central Marine * Enging., vol. lxxi. p. 72 ·
Princess Elizabeth,' &c. Elder

vol. xxxi. p. 219
H.M.S. 'Sybilla

vol. lv. p. 694

Maw,cxxxiii.

Wallsend "Czar'

'Enging.,' vol. xxxv. p. 420 'Royal Prince Dickinson

vol. xli. p. 613
• The Earl
Finch

vol. xliv. p. 403
County of York
Barrow

vol. xliii. p. 297
• Westmoreland'
Rollo

vol. xlii. p. 71 .
| Fleming &
Cairndhu'

vol. Iviii. p. 387

Ferguson
Dredger'
HawksCrawshawi

vol. xxxv. p. 247
Normandy
Elder

vol. xxxix. p. 283

Rankine & * Arabian

vol. xxxviii. p. 83
Blackmore

Ramage &
Yt. Speedy'

vol. lxii. p. 241

Ferguson
• Schelde II.'
L. Smit & Son

vol. Ix. p. 662
• Churchill
Hall Russell

vol. xxxvii. p. 2
Fleming &
• Grace Darling

* Engr.,' vol. lxv. p. 237

Ferguson
Infanta Maria Theresa Soc. Las Astilluos 'Enging.,' vol. lviii. p. 805

Ramage &
'Gladiator

vol. xliii. p. 105
Ferguson
Hodge

vol. xxxvi. p. 4.

91

1826

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* Maw, with Roman numerals, stands for W. H. Maw's Recent Practice in Marine Engineering, London, 1883 ; 'Engr. stands for Engineer ; · Euging,' for Engineering; Mor. for Morrison's corrugated furnaces.

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vol. lxvii. p. 544; Maxim, “Enging.,' vol. lviii. p. 195; Niclausse, *N. A.,' 1896, vol. xxxvii. p. 119.

General descriptions of water-tube boilers : Marine Boilers,' Bertin and Robertson ; Water-tube Boilers, J. T. Milton, ‘N. A.,' 1893, vol. xxxv. pp. 86, 295; Water-tube Boilers, J. K. Robinson, U.S. Navy, Am. Soc., 'N. E.;'C. E.,' 1895; also · Enging.,' vol. Ix. p. 554. Circulation in Water-tube Boilers : Prof. Watkinson, N. A.,' 1896, vol. xxxvii. p. 267; also · Enging.,' vol. Ixi. p. 437; J. A. Normand, ‘N. A.,' 1896, vol. xxxvii. p. 109; C. C. P. Fitzgerald, N. A.,' 1897, vol. xxxviii. p. 165; A. F. Yarrow, N. A.,' 1898, vol. xl. p. 114; A. F. Yarrow, ‘N. A.,'1899, vol. xli. p. 333. V ery instructive information about boilers in general will be found in the Admiralty Report, 1892.

In the following list the vessel's name and reference only are given. The drawings show the positions of boilers, pipes, &c., as fitted on board :

W. H. Maw, 1883: Gallia,' plate xv. ; 'Hohenzollern,' xxi.; H.M.S. "Grappler,' · Wrangler,' • Wasp,'' Banterer,' • Espoir,' xlvii. and xlviii. ; Servia,' lxiv. ; H.M.S. Rover,' lxxi. ; Arizona,' xcii.; Grecian,' cxviii.; “Assyrian Monarch,' cxlvi. and cxlvii.;'Czar,'cxxxi.; H.M.S. Conqueror,' cxliii.; Normandie,' clxviii. 'Engr.' : 'Chicago, vol. Ixi. p. 86; “Oroya,' vol. lxiii. p. 234 ; . Grace Darling,' vol. Ixv. p. 236; 'Elbe, vol. Ixiv. p. 522.Enging.': 'Princess Elizabeth,' Princess Marie,' vol. xxxi. p. 119; 'Servia,' vol. xxxiii. p. 247; Satellite,' • Conqueror,' vol. xxxv. pp. 266, 267; 'Czar,' vol. xxxv. p. 364; Churchill,' vol. xxxvii. p. 2; Normandie,' vol. xxxvii. p. 65; * Godiva,'. Stokesley,' and `Hunstanton,' vol. xxxvii. p. 380 ; • County of Salop, vol. xxxviii. p. 516; H.M.S. • Boadicea, • Bacchante,' vol. xl. pp. 325, 328; Alacrity' and 'Surprise,' vol. xl. p. 589 ; * Kathleen Mavourneen,' vol. xli. p. 221; H.M.S. Mersey and Rodney,' vol. xli. p. 449; “Royal Prince, vol. xli. p. 588 ; • Westmoreland,' vol. xlii. p. 70; Gladiator,' vol. xliii. p. 104; • County of York,' vol. xliii. p. 246; The Earl,' vol. xliv. p. 405; H.M.S. • Orlando,' vol. xliv. p. 492; 'Elbe,' vol. xliv. pp. 656, 661; Islander,' vol. xlvi. p. 304; H.M.S. Barracouta,' vol. xlix. p. 467;

Sunderland' (torpedo boat), vol. xlix. p. 32; ‘Kaiser Wilhelm II.,' vol. 1. p. 126; H.M.S. ·Barham' and · Barracouta,' vol. 1. p. 628 ;

Normannia,' vol. 1. p. 252; City of Vienna' (forced draught), vol. li. p. 398; ‘Indra,' vol. li. p. 525; "Scot,' vol. lii. p. 10; Ophir,' vol. lii. pp. 535, 591 ; H.M.S. Edgar,' vol. liii. p. 74; Infanta Maria Theresa, Enging.,' vol. lvii. p. 805; · Norman,' 'Enging.,' vol. lviii. p. 699; Russian . Kherson' (Belleville), ` Enging.,' vol. Ixii. p. 799 ; H.M.S. Powerful' (Belleville), Enging.,' vol. lxii. p. 403; Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse,' Enging., vol. Ixiv. p. 364 ; Cristobal Colon, ' (Water-tube), ‘Enging.,' vol. Ixiv. p. 206 ; *Engr.,' vol. Ixxx. pp. 228, 523, 543 (pipes).

The Scantlings of Boilers are in most cases determined either according to Lloyd's or the Board of Trade rules, to which a special chapter is devoted. Here it will not be out of place to indicate the methods to be employed for finding the best proportions, either as regards efficiency or weight. It is, of course, impossible to make any comparisons as regards cost, because the practices and available tools

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of different shops are not known; nor will any attempt be inade to deal with the subject exhaustively, and only two simple comparisons will be carried out. In the one case it will be shown which form of joint and which percentage of riveting gives the lightest boiler shell, but only if built strictly according to Lloyd's rules. In the other case the lightest means of staying flat boiler plates will be discussed, and a few remarks will be added, showing how to proceed when dealing with such rules.

A very complete collection of rules and regulations by various Governments for boiler construction, &c., will be found in Delauny. Belville, 1886.

Riveted Joints.—Lap joints (fig. 436) and double butt-strap joints (fig. 437) are those most commonly used in boilers, though occasion

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ally Rowe's joint (fig. 438) is met with; it has been designed with the object of keeping the pitch of the outer row of rivets small, so

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as to increase the water-tightness. A similar object is evident in fig. 439. Single butt-strapped joints (fig. 440) are only used on furnaces

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or to cover defective welds. Fig. 441 is a design intended to save weight.

When there are more than two rows of rivets in a lap joint, or more than three in a double butt-strapped one, it is desirable to arrange the rivets in such a manner that the percentage of strength of joint is the same for every row of rivets. It will be found that this is only the case in joints designed similarly to those shown in figs. 443 to 447. In these cases the quotient obtained by dividing the number of rivets in two adjoining rows is a constant value. If there are relatively fewer rivets in the inner row than in the outer one-as, for instance, in fig. 442—the percentage of strength along that line is too high ; while if there had been relatively more rivets, it would have been too low. Let the quotient of the number of rivets in one row, when divided by the number in the adjoining inner row, be denoted by m; then B, the value of percentage of the joint-all rows having equal values-is found in the following table. A lower percentage than that given in this table should not be used, because the inner rows would be weaker than the outer ones, which gives a bad seam for caulking.

Table of Percentages of Riveted Joints.

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"See fig. 455.

See fig. 446.

* See fig. 447. • This is the value for Rowe's joint, having two rows of rivets on each side of butt with equal numbers of rivets in each (fig. 438).

* See fig. 443. • This is the value for Rowe's joint, having three rows of rivets on each side of butt, there being 1, 1, and 14 rivets respectively in the 1st, 2n«l, and 3rd rows (fig. 448). . See fig. 414. * Sée fig. 442.

The riveted joint most commonly used is shown in fig. 442. It has been explained (see p. 220) that the distance from the edge of the

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plate to the circumference of the rivet hole should not be less than its diameter. As regards the distances of the various rows of rivets from

each other, a fairly uniform practice seems to exist of making the angular position of the rivets equal to about 50° to 55°, and in some works even 60° is customary. Some experiments (see p. 162) show that, except for an angle of about 60°, diagonal joints are no stronger than longitudinal

At this angle the longitudinal and diagonal pitches are equal. For smaller angles the percentage of the plate might

be ascertained by measuring the zigzag FIG. 444

line of all the outer rivets, subtracting all their diameters, and then dividing by the zigzag length. Few joints would then show the high percentage now claimed for them.

ones.

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