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Provender, before they sat down and examined what Fragments of some former Meals were reserved for themselves.

In travelling from Kairo to Mount Sinai, the Heavens were every Night, as he tells us, their only Covering; the Sand, spread over with a Carpet, was their Bed; and a Change of Raiment, made up into a Bundle, their Pillow. Their Ca. mels (for Horses and Mules require too much Water to be employed in these Deserts) were made to lie round them in a Circle, with their Faces looking from them, and their respective Loads and Saddles placed behind them. In this Situation, they served them as so many Guards, being watchful Animals, and awaking with the leaft Noise.

As there was no Chance of meeting, in these long and dreery Deserts, with the least Hospitality or Entertainment, they were obliged to carry along with them all Things necessary for so long and tedious a Journey. They took care, in the first place, to provide themselves with a sufficient Quantity of Goats-skins, which they filled with Water, every four or five Days, or as often as they found it. Barley, with a few Beans intermixed, or else the Flour of one or t’other of them, made into Balls, was the Provender they laid in for their Canels. They provided for themselves Wheat-flour, Biscuit, Honey, Oil, Vinegar, Olives, Lentils, Potted Flesh, and such Things as would keep, during two Months, the Space commonly taken up in compleating this Journey. Nor should the wooden Bason or Copper-Pot, he says, be forgotten, that made up their Kitchen Furniture; the latter whereof was the necessary Utensil for cooking their Provifion, the other for serving it up, or kneading their unleavened Cakes.

When they were either to boil or bake, the Camels Dung, that they found left by some preceding Caravan, was their common Fuel; which, after it has been exposed a Day or two in the Sun, Catches Fire like Touchwood, and burns as bright as Charcoal. No sooner was their Food prepared (whether it was Potted Flesh, boiled with Rice; a lentil Soup; or unleavened Cakes, served up with Oil or Honey) than one of the Arabs, after having placed himself upon the highest Station he could find, invites three times, with a loud Voice, all his Brethren, the Sons of the Faithful, to come and partake of it ; tho' none of them were in view, or perhaps within a hundred Miles of them. This Custom however they maintain to be always a Token of their great Benevolence, as it would be of their Hospitality likewise, if they had an Opportunity to shew it.

When they are so fortunate, in travelling in Barbary, to find out the Encampments of the Arabs, (for they are not fond of visiting the Kabyles, who are not so easily managed) they are entertained, as the Doctor says, for one Night upon free Coft: The Arabs, either by long Custom, the particular Tenure of their Lands, or rather perhaps from Fear and Compulsion, being obliged to give the Spahees, and those who are with them, the Mounak, as they call it, which is a fufficient Quantity of Provisions for themselves and their Horses. Besides a Bowl of Milk, and a Basket of Figs, Raisins, Dates, or other dryed Fruit, which were presented to them upon their Arrival, the Master of the Tent, where they lodged, fetched them from his Flock (according to the Number of their Company) a Kid, or a Goat ; a Lamb, or a Sheep ; half of which was immediately seethed by his Wife, and served up with Cuscasowe; the rest was usually made Kab.ab,* and reserved for their Breakfast or Dinner the next Day. * i. e. cut into Chops and roasted. B 3


However, the Tents of these roving Herdsmen, as he remarks, tho' they may shelter Travellers from the Weather, are notwithstanding attended with their Inconveniences. For the Cold, and the Dews that they are every Night exposed to, in the Deserts of Arabia, do not incommode them half so much as the Vermin and Insects of all kinds, which never fail to moleft them here. Besides Fleas and Lice, which, without a Miracle, are here in all their Quarters, the Apprehensions they are under of being bit or ftung by the Scorpion, Viper, or venomous Spider, rarely fails, in some Parts of these Countries, to interrupt the Rest that is fo grateful and necessary to a weary Itinerant. Upon Sight indeed of one or other of these venomous Beasts, a Thaleb or Writer, who happened to be one of our Author's Spabees, after he had muttered a few Words, exhorted the Company to take courage, and not be afraid of such Creatures, as he had made tame and harmless by his Charms and Incantations. People are likewise no less offended (from whence they might least expect it) by their Kids, Calves, and other young Cattle, that are tied up, every Night, under the Eaves of their Tents, to prevent them from sucking their Dams. For the Cords, that are used upon these Occasions, being only made of loose-spun Yarn, the fretful Creatures are every Moment breaking loose, and trampling over them. When our Author's Company was at any

time entertained in a courteous Manner (for the Arabs will sometimes part with nothing till it be extorted by Force) he used to give the Master of the Tent a Knife, a Couple of Flints, or a small Quantity of English Gunpowder ; which, being much stronger than their own, they have in great Esteem, and keep for the priming only of their Fire-arns. If the Lallah (or Lady) his Wife, had been obliging also in her Way, by making their Cuscafowe savoury


and with Expedition, she would return a thousand Thanks for a Skain of Thread ; a large Needle; or a pair of Sciffars; all of them great Rarities, and very engaging Presents with these people.

During the excessive Heats of the Summer, and especially when they were apprehensive of being intercepted by some Party of free-booting Arabs, they then travelled in the Night; which having no Eyes, according to a Proverb of the Natives, few of those Barbarians then dare venture out, as not knowing the Dangers and Ambuscades they may fall into. It is at this time, our Author observes, there are frequent Occasions of calling to remembrance the Words of the Psalmist, Pf. ciii. 2. The Leopards, Hyæna's, and a Variety of other ravenous Creatures, calling to and answering each other (the different Sexes perhaps, by this means, finding out and corresponding with their Mates) break in very awfully upon the Solitude, and the Safety likewise, that one might promise himself in travelling at this Season.

Their Stages or Days Journeys were not always the fame. For when any Danger was apprehended, they then travelled through as many By-paths, as their Conductors were acquainted with; riding, in this Manner, without refting, sometimes twelve, sometimes fifteen Hours together. Nay, in returning from Jerusalem (so vigilant were the Arabs at that time in distressing the Pilgrims) notwithstanding they had the Sheck (or Saint) of Mount Carmel, with twenty of his Servants to protect them, they rested only one Hour in two and twenty ; for so long they made it in travelling between Sichem and Mount Carmel. But in the Kingdoms of Algiers and Tunis, an ordinary Day's Journey (exclufive of the Time taken up in making Observations) rarely exceeded eight or nine Hours. Their constant Practice was to rise at Break of Day, set for



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ward with the Sun, and travel till the Middle of
the Afternoon ; at which time they began to look
out for the Encampments of the Arabs; who, to
prevent such Parties as theirs from living upon
them, take care to pitch in Places the least con-
spicuous. And indeed sometimes, unless they dif-
covered the Smoke of their Tents, observed some
of their Flocks, or heard the Barking of their Dogs,
it was with Difficulty, if at all, that they were
able to find them. Here, as our Author observed
before, they were accommodated with Lodging and
Provisions for that Night ; and if in the Course of
their travelling the next Day, as the Poet expref-
ses it.

They chanc'd to find
A new Repast, or an untasted Spring;

They bless'd their Stars, and thought it Luxury.
In travelling along the Coast of Syria, and from
Suez to Mount Sinai, one runs little or no risque
of being either robbed or insulted, provided one
keeps company with the Caravan, and does not
stray from it. But a Neglect of this kind, through
the great Eagerness a Traveller may have in look-
ing after Plants and other Curiosities, will expose
him, our Author says, as it once did himself, to
great Danger. In the Holy-Land, and upon the
Isthmus betwixt Egypt and the Red-Sea, the Con-
ductors cannot be too numerous, whole Clans, from
fifty to five hundred, being sometimes looking out
for a Booty. This was the Case of the Caravan
our Author belong'd to, in travelling (A. D. 1722.)
from Ramab to Jerusalem ; where four Bands of
Turkish Soldiers, with the Mofolem or General at
the Head of them, were not able, or durft not at
least protect them, against the repeated Insults and
Ravages of the Arabs. But in Barbary, where the
Arabs are more under Subjection, our Author rare-


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