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ponsorics until one of the days of Christmas, ! will appear; and so much the said sir W. As as by the letter (which is by this Article ac- ton and the said earl agreed should be delivered knowledged to be mistaken) was required, yet unto them in writing before they would have the prince's powers had before that time been delivered the powers, and so the said earl de

(pired. 9. He durst not, without a precise clared it; the which Answer in writing should warraui, put such a scorn upon so noble a lady, I have been the same, which since was given whom he then conceived likely to be the thein of the 8th Jan. 1623 : and both the said prince's wise, as to nominate a day for the mar- sir W. Aston, and the said carl were so confiriage when the powers were out of date. 10. dent thercin, as they, by their said letters of He was himself siforn to the treaty. Lastly, He l'the 23d of November, wrote to his late macould not, in honour and honesty, but endea- 1 jesty as followeth, viz.-" That bis majesty vour to perforin that trust reposed in bin, Inight according to his desire signified to them when the powers were deposited in his hands, by his letters of the 8th of October, give as with public and legal declaration taken into an well to his ipajesty's daughter, that Christinstrument by the secretary of state to the king mas, the comfortable news of the near exof Spain, leading and directing the use of them; piring of her great troubles and sufferings for the same being then instrumentum stipula- as to his son, the prince, the congratolation tum, as well 'the king of Spain was interested of being married to a most worthy and excelby the acceptance of the substitution, as the lent princess."--By which it will evidently priuce by the granting of the powers, and he appear, be meant not to leave the business of could not in honesty fail that public trust, with the Palatinate loose when he intended to proout clear and undoubted warrant; which, as ceed to the Marriage: but he confesseth be soon as he had, be obeyed: so, the case stand was ever of opinion, the best pawn and assuring thus, the said earl is very confident, that ance his late maj, could have of the real prothe supposed countermands, or directions of ceedings in the said business of the Palatinate, restriction, when they shall be perused and con- was, that they proceeded really to the effecting sidered of, will appear to have been a very of the Match : and of the same opinion was slender and insufficient warrant against the his late maj. also, and the lords commissioners aforesaid orders and reasons, herein before here in England, as appeareth by his instruc specificd: and is also as confident, that what is tions, dated the 14th March, 1621; which assumed out of the said earl's dispatches, will opinion still continued in them, as appeareth also appear to be so understood; and ibat if by his late majesty's letters of the 7th Jau. he had proceeded to the execution of the des- | 1622.--Concerning the Temporal Articles, the ponsories, before he received direct and ex- said earl saith, When the desponsories were press commandment to the contrary, by the formerly appointed to have been, as he remeaforesaid letter of the 13th Nov. 1623, which bereth, on the 9th Aug. before the departure he readily and punctually obeyed, he had not, of his maj. then prince, (which was only birunder favour, broken liis instructions, nor de dered by the not coming of the dispensation) served any blame for lack of assurance of resti the prince appointed him and sir W. Aston to tution of the Palatinate, or temporal articles: meet with the Spanish commissioners; and and first, of the Palatinate, his maj. did not send they drew up the heads of the Temporal Artiunto the said earl express direction not to dis- cles, wherewith the prince and d. of Bucking patch the desponsories until a full conclusion ham were acquainted; and in case the disper be liad of the other treaty of the Palatinate, sation had come, and the desponsories been together with that of the Marriage, as by the performed on that day, there had then no otber said Article is alledged; only his late maj. by provision been made for them before the the aforesaid letters of the 8th Oct. required the Marriage; but presently upon the prince's de .said earl so to endeavour, that his maj. might parture, he, the said earl, caused them to be have the joy of both at Christmas; whereas his drawn into form, and sent them to his late maj. instructions of the 14th March, 1621, were ex- the 24th Sept. 1623, desiring to understand his press, that he should not make the business of inajesty's pleasure with all speed, especially if ibePalatinate a condition of the Marriage; and he disapproved any thing in them; but never his late majesty's letters, of the Soth Dec. 1623, I received notice of any dislike thereof until the were fully to the same effect: yet did the said aforesaid letters of the 13th Nov. 1623, which earl according to what was intimated by the said / put off the desponsories. So it appeareth the letters of the 8th Oct. so carefully provide said earl was so far from breaking his instructherein, that before the powers were to have tions, or from having any intention to have been executed, he had an absolute Answer in proceeded to the execution of the desponsories, the business of the Palatinate, that the same before his maj. and the prince were satisfied should be really restored, according to his late in the point of the Infanta's entering into majesty's desire; and the conde D'Olivares, both religion; or, before convenient assurances in his master's name and his own, desired the well of the restitution of the Palatinate as for said earland sir W. Aston, that they would as-performance of the Temporal Articles, that be sure his maj. of the real performance thereof; I deserved, as he conceiveth, (under favour) no and intreated them, if necd were, they should blame, so much as in intention; but if he had engage their honours and lives for it, as by erred in intention only, as he did not, and the their joint dispatch, of the 230 Nov. 1629, same never reduced into act, the fault, as to

conceiveth, was removed by his obedience :be- sequences which are pretended would have fore the intention was put in execution; for followed, if the said earl had proceeded to the so it is in cases towards God himself.--And consummation of the Match before he had as to the Matter of Aggravation against him, express warrant to the contrary, be must, and " That be appointed so short a day for the doth confess, he then understood the ciéan desponsories, as that, without extraordinary contrary; for he supposed that his maj. should diligence, the prince had been bound ;' he speedily have seen the Marriage (which he had thereto saith as before, That he set no day so long sought) effected, and the prince should thereto at all, nor could defer it after the dis- have a worthy lady whom he loved ; that tha pensation came from Rome, without a direct portion was much greater than was ever given breach of the Match so long laboured in, and in money in Christendom; and that the king of $0 much desired; yet he and sir W. Aston Spain had engaged himself for the Restitution used all possible industry to discover how the of the Palatinate ; for which the said eail conmnotion of deferring the Match would be taken; / ceived a daughter of Spain and two inillions and finding an absolute resolution in the king had been no ill pawn, besides divers other of Spain to proceed punctually in requiring the additions of advantage to the crown of Eng. powers, according to the capitulations, within land: whereas, on the contrary side, he foreten days after the coming of the dispensation; saw the prince would be kept at least one year and at that timc also getting advertisement longer unmarried, a thing which highly confrom Rome, that the dispensation was granted, cerneth these kingdoms; he doubted that the and would presently be there : he, the said Recovery of the Palatinate from the emperor earl, to the end that, in so great a case, he and duke of Bavaria, by force, would prove of might have a clear and undoubted understand great difficulty; and that Christendom was like ing of bis late majesty's pleasure, sent a dis to fall in a general combustion ; so desiring patch, of the 1st Nov. with all diligence to the that his maj. should have obtained his ends, king; letting his maj. know that it would not and have had the honour and happiness not be possible for him to protract the Marriage only to have given peace, plenty, and increase above 24 days, unless he should hazard the to his own subjects and crowns; but to have breaking of it, for which he had no warrant; compounded the greatest differences that had but that this was no new resolution, nor the been these many years in Christendom; and, king so straitened in time, as by the said Ar- by his piety and wisdom, to have prevented the ticle is pretended, will appear by the said earl's shedding of so much Christian blood, as he dispatch of the 24th Sept. 1623 ; in which, feared would ensue, if these businesses were upon the scruple that was then made of the disordered. These reasons, he confesseth, and Infanta's entering into religion, he wrote to his zeal unto his majesty's service, made him the same effect, viz. “ That if the dispensation so earnestly desire the effecting of this business : should come, he knew no means how to detain and he cannot but think himself an unfortunate the powers above 24 days." So that although man, that bis majesty's affairs being so near that difficulty happened not until about the the settling to his majesty's content, as he conmiddle of Nov. 1628, yet it was foreseen that ceived they were, and hoping to have been to at must of necessity happen whensoever the his master not only a faithful but a successful dispensation should come; and, there was servant, to see the whole state of affairs turned Warning of two months time given thereof; upside down, without any the least fault of via. from the 24th Sept. to the 29th Nov. his; and yet he the only minister, on the which was the time appointed for the despon- English or Spanish side, that remaincth under sories : so he humbiy submitteth himself to disgrace." your lordships which of the two ways was the “ XI. To the Eleventh Article the said Earl safer and most dutiful for him to take; whe- saith, That the said Article is grounded upon ther, upon inferences and conjectures, to have a Petition, preferred by him to this most hon. overthrown so great a business; or, on the house, supposed to be scandalous; which your other side, first to have presented to his maj.lordships, as he conceiveth, according to the with truth and sincerity, as he did, the truc custoni and privileges of the house of peers, state of bis affairs, with his humble opinion would have been pleased first to have adjudged therein; with an intention, if his maj. should | so to have been, either for matter appearing resolve to break the Match, that, for the said in itself, or upon hearing of the said earl; for

arl's honest discharge of the public trust re-| if the matter appearing in the Petition itself posed in him, when the powers were deposited he not excepted unto, it cannot, as he conin his hands, and for his sufficient warrant in ceiveth, by collateral averment, be taken for a o great a cause, his maj. would be graciously scandal, till it be examined and found false : pleased to give him clear and express orders, but, for a plain and direct Answer thereunto, which he then had not; and, in the interim, he saith, That the said Petition doth not warwhilst his maj. might take into consideration rant any such inference, as by the said Article the great inconveniences that inight ensue, the is enforced; and that he hopeth to justify the said inconveniences might be suspended; and contents of his said Petition in such sort as the busioess kept upon fair terms, that his shall not displease his maj. nor deserve that Joaj. might have his way and choice clear and expression which is used in the Charge; but, unsoiled before hitz ; and as for the evil con- contrarily, what he hath said, or shall say VOL. II.


therein, in his defence, shall, in all things, tends and that Mr. Attorney might not take hold to the honour and service of his most royal of any matter of form or legality to his pre maj, by reducing unto liis incinory divers cir- judice. cuinstances, and laying before bim the passages To this Mi, Attorney replied, “ That he of divers particulars, which, by undue prac- would not, but only insist upon the matter of tices, have been either concealed from his the Charge;" and desired, as the earl had done, maj. or misrelated unto him."

that the house would direct the course how * Having thus olered unto this high and the witnesses might be examined, and the hon. court such proofs and reasons as, heinanner of his, turther proceeding against the hopeth, shall, in your lordships wisdom and said earl. The eart being withdrawn, the justicc, clearly acquit him of any capital crime, house agreed to give his counsel encourage or wilful offeuce: it it shall appear that, out of ment for their free and faithful advice to hina; error of judgment, too much fervency of zeal and it was further ordered that the said car! to bis maj.'s service, or ignorance in the laws, should have liberty to go abroad in the custody wherewith he hath not been able to be so well of Mr. Maxwell, the usher, to take the air for acquainted as he ought, by reason of his fo- bis bealth's sake; which was granted at his roign employments for the space of 14 years, humble request. Tlie earl being called in or by any other ways or means, he hath fallen again was made acquainted with this order, as into the danger of the laws, for any thing par- the king's own consent, for which he returned doned in the general Pardon marle in the 21st his maj. and their lordships his most humble year of our late sovereign lord king James of thanks. England, of hlessed memory, he humbly pray- The Commons commit Mr. More, a Manter, elh allowance of the said Pardon, and the be- for reflecting on the King. The Commons nefit thereof; with this clause, That he doth proceeded for several days, after the last nietand will approve that he is none of the persons tioned affair, in reading bills, &c. But, in ose excepted out of the sanie: and though he is of these days 'debates, Mr. More, a member, very confident that he shall not need the help dropped some words, which were represented of any Pardon, having received several signific to the king, and, by him, back again to the cations, as well from his majesty's own mouth, house : on which a committee was appointed that he liad nerer offended his maj. as lately to examine into the matter; and, Jue Srd, a by several letters from the lord Conway, that report was made, froin thence, of the words he night rest in the security.he was and sit spoken by Mr. More, “ That we were bon stil, and should not be further questioned; yet frec, and must continue free, if the king would he hopeth your ldps, will find him so free from keep his kingdom:" or words to that effect. blame, that he shall need no pardou ; but that And, in the same discourse, upon supposition Le hath served his late maj. of blessed memory, what a tyrant may do or not do, within this and his inost gracious sovereign that pow is, kingdom, he added these words; “ As thanks with fidelity, care, and industry; and that your be to God, we have no occasion, we having a lordships will take such course, as you, in your just and pious king." Mr. More was heard te wisdomis, shall think fit, not only for the up- explain hiinself, and then withdrew. But holding of the honour and reputation of a peer though the Journals say that Mr. More wat of this realm, after so many employments, but cleared of any ill intentions, in speaking these will likewise become humble and earnest words, by all who spake in his favour, which suitors to his maj. on his behalf, (which he were many; yet, on the question, Mr. More humbly prayeth) that he may be restored to was sentenced to the Tower, and the Speaker his maj.'s gracious favour; whichi, above all pronounced it accordingly. But, four day worldly things, he most desireth."

after, the king was pleased to send a message The earl of Bristol's Answer being ended, to the house, That he would rennit his further the lord kecper demanded of bin it he had punishment. On which he was ordered to be any thing more to say. Whereupon the earl enlarged. complaining of the inequality between himselt The Commons lay a Penalty upon absent and the duke of Buckingbam, and that, by rea- Members.) About this time a call of the house son of his restraint, he was disabled froin pro- of commons was made with great strictless ceeding against the duke, and that his counsel and the absent inembers ordered to be taken was disheartcried to give him their free advice; into custody; a penalty of 101, was laid upon he earnestly urged their lordships promise to any member that did not appear at the cable - make them both equal; and said, That his and yet absents himself from the service of the

counsel inforioed luim there was no treason in house, without asking leave. all the Charge against him save only what I The Commons order a Letter of Reprimand caine near a statute touching religion, which to the Univ. of Cambridge for chusing the D). he humbly submitted to the house : and bes of Buckingham for their Chancellor.] Jano sought their lordships to take some course, by 5th. Mr. Herbert made a report from a conthe resolution of the judges, or otherwise as mittee, That it appeared to them this house they should please, that it may be declared had just caoso of complaint, on the election ! whether bis case be trcason or not, before he the d. of Buckingham to be chancellor of the be further proceeded with: likewise, that he University of Cambridge; and do think file twight bare liberty to examine lis witnesses, I that a lettter should be written to the corpo

ration of that university, to signify that dislike; / whereas you say in the manner of carriage of and to require them to send some of their body the election, there were many passages done instructed and authorized to inform and give in it to the contempt of the house: his maj. is sccount to this house, of the manner of their well pleased that you enquire and punish the proceeding in the said election.Rushworth offenders, if there be any that have misbeacquaints us, “ That great interest was made haved themselves in that respect. But for by the court to carry this point; and that the election itself or the form of it, his maj. several letters were pretended to be sent, by doth avow his first Message.”-It is probable, the king himself, in order to discouraye all tbat the house was in soine measure satisfied by opposers. But, notwithstanding that the heads of the king's Reply, or seemed to be so: for it bouses and the doctors were almost unaniinously was referred to a farther consideration from in the duke's interest; yet a strong party was time to time, till we hear no more of it. formed against him, ainongst the juniors; and, The D. of Bucks' Speech upon presenting his at the election, be carried it by only 5 voices; Answer to the Commons, Inpeachment.] June 8. the numbers being, for the duke 108, and 103 The duke of Buckingham gave in his Answer for the earl of Berkshire; besides that two of to the house of lords concerning the Articles the duke's were void by statute, as being given of his Inpeachment, p. 106. But before he to the vice-chancellor by compromise, to dis- delivered it, he made the following speech. pose of as he should think fit."--The disgust of | “My Lords, In a cause of pressure conthe commons against the university was, that sidered by itself, I have a fair beginning; as it they should pretend to chuse a man, who is a debt due to your lordships for this noble then stood impeached by them, for several favour in leaving it to my choice, whether I high crimes and prisdemeanors. Accordingly, would answer to every particular in the aggrathe opinion of the committee for writing a ration, or not. I may without lessening any letter to Cambridge, &c. was readily complied obligation, say, the favour is of greater extent with, and ordered to be done, by the whole than at first may be inagined; for what is my house. But, June the 6th, when the letter cause now may be yours or your posterities was read by Mr. Pym and approved on, the bereafter. I have in a manner tied mysclf chancellor of the excheguer, sir Rd. Weston, only to my Charge, hoping, if I give your lordtold the house, 'That the king, being ac- ships satisfaction in that, the aggravations will quainted with their intention, had commanded fall of themselves. I could not well have folbim to signify his pleasure to them, that they lowed the aggravations, being composed of forbear to send the letter." The further con- words which, I hope, my actions have not sidcration of this message was deferred to the deserved, and I am sure my ears have not next day. And, June 7th, the house, in a been acquainted with, without some distraction grand committee, agreed upon the following of spirit: yet I have left nothing of them unanAnswer to it.

swered that is material. I have used as much " That they do acknowledge they were about speed to come to my Answer as conveniently to write to the University, because that the very could, without prejudice to my cause, having election itself, wbereby the University is com- | already had my reputation too long upon the mitted to the government of one that is charged, stage; and had your lordships called for it and publicly complained of by the commons sooner I had been as ready as now I am dein parliament, whereof the electors are a part, sirous to detain your lordships as little as may s, in itself, a very great grievance, and preju | be, with the expectation of my particular, from dicial in example; whereof they have reason weightier business. I was also grieved that my to be the more sensible, because they are in-business should be the cause of the loss of this formed, that in the manner of the election year for foreign attempts, and the bindrance of there were many passages likewise done in those resolutions that would have comforted contempt of the house: and do humbly beseech our friends abroad, and secured ourselves at bis maj. to believe, that neither in this, nor any bome: but, in this, my lords, I am sure, you other thing, this house did or shall intend to will easily acquit me in your thoughts. When enlarge their own power and jurisdiction, to I look upon my Charge in general, as the comthe dininution of his maj.'s right or preroga- mons did, without searching into the integrity tive."

of my own heart and actions, which are yet Whercunto bis maj. replied by the said sir unknown to most of them, I wonder not so Rd, Weston :-" That the University of Cam much at their proceedings, the particulars not bridge and all corporations derive their right being voted against me unanimously; but, lad and privilege from hin; and that he bath reason they taken the means to have been better and to esteein the Universities above any other, more truly informer of the particulars, or had and is resolved to defend them against any, given me cause to have informed them, I assure which either wilfully, or by chance, shall go myself they had not troubled your lordships aboat to infringe their liberties. Concerning with this Charge. I confess there hath been the election itself, his niaj, is far from conceiving that contestation in the house of commons it a grievance; for he never heard that crimes concerning my justification, that I cannot but objected, were to be taken as proved; or, that acknowledge much favour there from many, a roan should lose bis faine or good opinion in and if the actions of soine others of that house Lix world, upon an accusation only. But I do not make the conclude me of a worse disposition than I shall hereafter be found, I offences, and crimes, wherewith he is charged there is none but may say with me, I am by the commons house of parliament, and which ac peace with all. I shall now, for the are comprised in the Articles preferred against present, only apply myself to the clearing him and were aggravated by those whose sere my reputation, and for the future to those vice was used by that house in the delivery of actions and endeavours which may repos- them; doth find in himself an inexpressible sess me of that I have accounted one of my pressure of deep and hearty sorrow, that so greatest losses, their good opinions. I would great and so worthy a body should hold him not speak nor profess this before your lord- suspected of those things which are objected ships, if reason and my own disposition did against him, whereas, bad that honourable not warrant the performance of it. For, first, house first known the very truth of those parti. who accused me? Common Fame. Who gave culars, whereof they had not there the means to me up to your lordships? The house of com be rightly informed; he is well assured, in their mons. The one is too subtle a body, if a bo- own true judgments, they would have forbora dy; the other too great a one, for me to con- | to have charged him therewith. But the intetest with: I'am confident, when my Cause shall grity of his own heart and conscience, being be tried, neither the one or the other, or part the most able and most impartial witness, not of cither, will be found to have any ground to accusing bim of the least thought of disloyalty be my cnemy. But as Fame is subtle, so it is to his sovereign or to his country, doth raise often, and especially in accusations, false: his spirits again to make his just defence before therefore though the house of commons have not your lordships; of whose wisdom, justice, and willingly wronged me: yet I am confident it bonour he is so well assured, that he doth with will at length be found, that Common Fame confidence, and yet with all humbleness subhath abused both thein and me. I presume mit himself and his cause to your examinations the house of commons have proceeded against and judgments; before whom he shall, with all me, out of an hearty and zealous affection, to sincerity and clcarness, unfold and lay open do their king and country servicc; and, I hope, the secrets of his own actions, and of his heart; out of Christian charity, to punish or amend and, in his Answer, shall not affirm the least my faults, (if Fame could have proved them substantial, and as scar as he can, the least and not to ruin my reputation, or destroy my | circumstantial point, which he doth not believe fortune. I shall never call such proceedings he shall clearly prove before your lordships. wrong, which, seeking to cure my errors, give “ The Charge consisteth of 13 several Artime opportunity to clear and publish my inno cles, whereunto the dake, saving to himself cency. For the State itself, I have a little to the usual benefit of not being prejudiced by say; it is but a little; I will not abuse your any words, or want of form, in his Answer; lordships patience. I was born and bred in it, but that he may be admitted to make further I owe it my life. I have been raised to honours explanation and proof, as there shall be occa. and fortunes in it, I freely confcss, beyond my sion; and saving to himself all privileges and merits. What I wanted in sufficiency and ex-rights belonging to hiin as one of the peers of perience for the service of it, I have endea- 1 tbis realm, doth make these several and distinct voured to supply by care and industry. Could Answers following, in the same order they are there be the least alienation hereafter of my | laid down unto him." heart from the service of the state, for any « I. To the First Article, which concerneth thing that bath past, I should be the ungrate the Plurality of Offices which he holdeth, be fullest man living. Should but such a thought answereth thus.- That it is true that he boldeth stain my heart, I should be content it were let those several places and offices, which are en blood. If my posterity should not inherit the merated in the preamble of his Charge, whereof same fidelity, I should desire an invertion in only three are worthy the name of offices, viz. the course of nature, and be glad to see them the Admiralty, the Wardenship of the Cinque earthed before me. My Answer to the seve- | Ports, and Mastership of the Horse; the others ral points of my Charge I shall crave leave to | are rather titulary and additions of honour: for deliver briefly in writing and in form of law; / these offices he humbly and freely acknotbut as naked as truth loves to be : and so I ledgeth the bounty and goodness of his most leave myself and my Cause to your lordships gracious master, who is with God; who, when justice."

he had cast an eye of favour upon him, and Then his grace presented his Answer, and had taken bin into a more near place of sergave the same to the lord keeper, and his lord-vice about his royal person, was more willing ship to the clerk, which followeth in hæc verba: / to multiply his graces and favours upon him

than the duke was forward to ask them; and, “The Humble ANSWER and Plea of GEORGE

for the most part, as inauy honourable persons, Duke of BUCKINGHAM, to the DECLARA

and his now most excellent maj. above all TION and IMPEACHMENT made against others

ç against others, can best testify, did prevent the very him, before your Lordships, by the Com-I desires of the duke in asking: and all these mons House of Parliament. (See p. 106.) | particular places, he can and doth truly atfirm, “ The said duke of Bucks. being accused, I his late maj. did bestow of his own royal meand sought to be impeached before your lord- tion, except the Wardenship of the Cinque ships, of the many misdemeanors, misprisiops, | Ports only; and thereto also he gave his approx

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