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power. Believe it, the hinge of most of the
• .-..CM* moved in Christendom turn on the affairs of Germany: ibr it" thut great body wen once united under one head, it would crush alJ tile n-6t with the weight of it. Next, let us look a little over into France: there shall we liud the poor men of our religion, exposed to the fury of an iuraged king; with a justcr pretence against them than hath been ut any time heretofore: besides, which is worse, the kings if Spain and France arc united against tiicin Hid us, and made better friends thun ever they sieant to have been: so that, not to succour ind support the professors pi' our religion, will lot only he iulidclity and cruelty, but impio■iiieiice and folly; for their ill is .ours. If llo:!iclle should he lost, which is iiow in losing, and ns maj. notable to set out one ship to help (; H it should be lost, it would hazard the utal extirpation of the religion; besides, it mould be au extraordinary advantage to the Jog of France for shipping, and as great a disuitiiutage to ns in respect of bus neighbourlood: and if the .Sound should be lost loo, how ihould we escape from being swallowed up by i Spanish invasion ? This island would be more lie a prison thun a kingdom, for we should not hen lie able to walk abroad. These are danlei's too many, yet have I willingly abridged hem; for I had rather come to the remedy, mo sci should we all: this consists only in inoley, plentifully and speedily brought in, wisely md judiciously laid out. I doubt not but we ire all resolved to give: wherefore let us prewre ourselves to give plentifully, to satisfy the 'uhlic occasions, and to heave his maj. out of itcessity ; for necessity is the worst counsellor, •nd I shall be very sorry that w e, of all others, tiould be guilty of placing such ill counsel bout the king: and now to think of sparing, 'hen all lies at the stake, were the most undoig kind of frugality. Let us give speedily;
• delay is the greatest danger of all dangers: I will not only lose that which we give, but hat also which we would give. And this I ropouud, not as the king's business, but our •>*>, wherein every man in this house hulh articular interest; if his fortune, his life, his thgion, be any thing unto him. Neither peak I tliis to divert the great business in and, but to hasten it, for I love as well Mr. peaker, to tread upon English ground, us any irm here doth.'
Mr. Pt/m. ' In business of weight, dispatch is titer than discourse: we came not hither witli■Jt all motives, that can be, towards his maj. ad he never sent in this message: we know se dangerofour enemies; we must add exedition to expedition; let us forbear particuWi A man in a journey is hindered by asking M many questious. I do believe our peril as reat as can be; every man complains of it, ad that doth encourage the enemy. Our ay is to take that which toyk aw ay ourcstates; hat is, the enemy: to give speedily is lhat 'Inch the king calls for, 'A ward spoken, in tusonis like an Appl« ol (iold set in Fictures
of Silver,'aud actions are more precious than words. Let us hasten our resolutions to supply his majesty.'
1'ive Subsidies voted.'] Hereupon after soma debute, the commons came to this unanimous Resolve, Thato Subsidies be given 10 his maj.: and Mr. Sec. Cooke was appointed to acquaint bis maj. with the Resolution of the house.
April 7. Mr.Secretary Cooke reported to tho house the king's acceptance of the Subsidies; and that his maj. was pleased to ask, ' By how many voices they.were gained?' I said, ' But by one.' His maj. asked, A How miiuj; were against him V I said, 'notie; for they were voted by one voice, aucl one general consent.' His maj. was much affected therewith, and called the lords in council: and there I gave them an account of w hat had passed: besides it gave his maj. no small content, that although 5 Subsidies be inferior to his wants, yet it is the greatest gift that ever w as giv en in parliament; and now he sees, that with this he shall have, the affections of his people, which will be. greater to him than all value. He said, ' He liked parliaments at rirst, yet since, (he knew not how) he was grown to a distaste of them; but was now where he was before; for he loves them; and shall rejoice to meet with his people often. That this day ho had gained more reputation in Christendom, than if he had won many battles.' And to secure our further fear, and to create further confidence, he assurctli us, that w e shall enjoy as great immunities in his time, as ever we did possess, or had, under the reigu of any the best kings of this realm/ ■
Mr. Secretary at the same time acquainted | the house, that upon his informing the king of their giving of j Subsidies, the duke of Buckingham addressed himself to his majesty* at the council-table, as follows:
"Sir; Mctliinks I now behold you a great king; for love is greater than majesty: the opinion that the people loved you not, had alJ most lost you in the opinion of the world; but I this day makes you appear as you are, a glorij ous king, loved at home, and now to be feared abroad. This falling out so happily, give me leave, I beseech you, to be an humble suitor to your maj. 1st, for myself, that I, who have had the honour to he your favourite, may now give, up that title unto them; they to be your favourites, and 1 to be your servant. My 2nd suit is, that they having done all so well, you will account of them all as one; a body of many members, but all of one heart. Opinion might have made them differ, but affection did movethem all to join with like love in this great gift; for the proportion, although it be less than your occasions may ask, yet it is more than ever subjects did give in so short a time: nor, I am persuaded, will it rest there; for this is but an earnest of their affections, to let you see, and : the world know, what subjects you have, that | when your honour, and the good of the scale is : engaged, and aid asked in the ordinary way of !parliament, you cannot want. Tb:s :> not a T
gift of 5 Subsidies alone, but the opening of a mine of subsidies that lieth in their hearts. This good beginning hath wrought already these effects; they have taken your heart, and drawn from you a declaration that you will love parliaments. And again this will meet, I make no question, with sucli respect, that their demands will be just, dutiful, and moderate; for they that know thus to give, know well what is fit to ask. Then cannot your maj. do less than out go their demands, or else you do less tlian yourself or them; foryour message begot trust; their truth and your promises must then beget performances. This being done, then shall I, with a glad heart, behold this work as well ended as now begun; and then shall I hope that parliaments shall be made hereafter so frequent, by the effects and good use of them, as they shall have this further benefit, to deter from approaching your ears all projectors and introducers of innovations, as disturbers both of church and common-wealth. Now, sir, to open my heart, and to ease my grief, please you to
Eardon me a word more. 1 must confess I have ing lived in pain; sleep hath given me no rest; favours and fortunes no content, such have been my secret sorrows, to be thought the man of separation, that divided the king from his people, aud them from him; but i hope it shall appear they were some mistaken minds, that would have made me the evil spirit that wolketh between a good master aud loyal people, by ill offices; whereas, by your majesty's favour, I shall ever endeavour to aprove myself a good spirit, breathing nothing ut the best services to them all. Therefore this day I account more blessed to me than my birth, to see myself able to serve them, to see you brought into love with parliaments, to see a parliament express such love to you; and God so love me and mine, as I joy to see this day!"
Sir J. Elliot resents the D. of Bucks Speech.] Mr. Sec. Cooke also at this time, repeated the substance of the king's Answer to the Petition of both houses concerning Recusants, pursuant to his majesty's order. This being done,
Sir John Elliot stood up and spoke as follows.* 'I presume we have all received great satisfaction from his maj. as at other times, so now in his gracious Answer and Resolution for the business of this house; his Answer to our Petition for Religion so particularly made; his Resolution in that other consideration concerning the point, already settled here, in declaration of our liberties; and for the parliament in general; that he hath taken so good a liking to our manner of proceeding, as it hath gained his promise therein to meet us often; i whereby 1 am confident, as of his grace to us,' to of our loyalties, that to thus good a beginning I wc shall add so happy a conclusion, as shall I increase that liking and good opinion in his <
* From the' Ephemera Parliamentarin,' corrected by the MS.
maj.; and from henceforth make him more and more in love with parliaments. As thus in general, so in my own particular, 1 receive so great satisfaction herein, that I have not words enough sufficiently to utter it. And yet, I confess, that extremity of joy is not without trouble, which must likewise be declared; to disburden this affection, which cannot, otherwise, so lively and so faithfully, express my devotion to the service of this house, as 1 had resolved. I know not by what fatality or infortunitj it has crept in; but I observe, in the close of Mr, Secretary's relation, mention made of another in addition to his maj.; and that which bath lieen formerly a matter of complaint, I find here still: a mixture with his maj. not only in his business but in name. Is it that any man conceives the mention of others, of what quality soever, can add encouragement or affection to us, in our duties and loyalties towards his maj.; or give them greater latitude or extern than naturally they hvae? Or is it supposed, that the power or interest of any man can add more readiness to his maj. in his gracious .inclination towards us, than his own goodness gives him? I cannot believe it. And as the sweetness and piety of his maj. which we have in admiration, make me confident in this; so the expression of our duty, so perspicuous and clear as already hath been given, is my assurance for the other. But, sir, I am sorry there is occasion that these things should be argued; or this mixture, which was formerly condeinucn, should appear again. I beseech you, sir, let it not be hereafter; let no man take this boldness within these walls, to introduce it; though, I confess, for my own particular, I shall readil y commend, nay, thank that man whose endeavours are applied to such offices as may be ad vantageable for the public; yet in tikis manner so contrary to the customs of our fathers ani the honour of our times, ns I cannot, withou scandal, apprehend it; so I cannot, withou some character or exception, pass it. An< therefore I desire that such interposition ma; be let alone; and that all his majesty's regard and goodnesses, towards this house, ma spring alone from his confidence of our loyalt and affections. Now let us proceed to tho% sen-ices that concern him; which I doubt noi in the end, will render us so real unto him, ihi we shall need no other help to endear us t his favour.'
Although it is expressly said before, in Rusl worth, that the commons voted a Supply of Subsidies on the 4th of April; there is not or word of it mentioned in the Journals, till scv< ral days after; the house seeming to be bu: in preparing their 'Petition of Right,' whic tbey were resolved, should go hand in hax with the other. And, it seems very probabl that no such vote was yet passed, by what fc lows in the Collections, which now exact coincides with the Journals of the cot mons.
The Kings Message desiring the Cmnmo not $o make any liecess at Easter.] Ap
10, Mr. Sec. Cooke delivered this message from the king, 'That his maj. desired tins bouse not to make any Heccss these Easter lolidays, that the world may take notice, how earnest his maj. and we are for the public afairs in Christendom, which, by such a recess, mi receive interruption.' This message br non-recess, was not well pleasing to the
Sir Rob. Philips first resented it, and took lotice, ' That in 12th and 18th Jac. upon the ike intimation, the house resolved it was in heir power to adjourn or sit: hereafter, said le, this may be put upon us by princes of less liery. Let a committee consider hereof, and four right herein, and make a declaration.' Accordingly this matter, touching his majesty's • ..-iirc about, the Ilecess, was referred to a ouimittee, who were to consider the power of he house to adjourn itself; to the end, that it leing now yielded unto in obedience to his naj. it might not turn to prejudice in time to :ome.
Sir Eda. Coke. 'I am as tender of the irivileges of this house as my life"; and they ire the heart-strings of the common-wealth. I he king makes a prorogation, but this house idjouros itself. The commission of ailjournncnt we never read, but say, ' This house adournj itself.' If the king write to an abbot 'or a corody, for a valet, if it be ex rogatu, hough the abbot yields to it, it binds not. Therefore I desire that it be entered, that this a done ex rogatu regis.'
Hereupon a Message was sent to the king, That the house would give all expedition to bis majesty's service, notwithstanding their purpose of recess. To which message, his maj. returned this Answer, that'the motion proceeded from himself, in regard of his engagement in the affairs of Christendom; that he *ished them all alacrity in their procedings, and that there be no recess at all.
Further Debate on the Supply.} April 11. Mr. Sec. Cook moved the expediting of Subsidiej,and turningof the votes into an act: 'We have many petitions to the king, said he, and they are petitions of right. We have freely and bountifully given 5 Subsidies, but no time ■ appointed; and subsidy without time is no subsidy: let us appoint a time.'
Sir Dudley Diggs. 'We have freely concluded our liberties; we have offered 5 Subsidies; his majesty hath given us gracious nii«*crs; we have had good by our beginnings: •hat have we hitherto done for the king? nothing is done that the king can take notice of- The world thinks that this parliament hath mt expressed that resolution that it did at first. How much doth it concern the king, that the "odd be satisfied with his honour? Our success and honour is the kiug's. Princes want not 'hose that may ingratiate themselves with them, *f doing ill offices. There is a stop; and "ever did a parliament propound any thing hut it hath been perfected sooner than this is. May ■>ut the king say, ' What have I done? They
grow cold. Have I not told them I will proceed with as much grace as ever king did? He will settle our properties and goods. Have we not had a gracious answer. Are we hand in hand for his Supply? Shnll it be said that this day it was moved, bat denied? It may put our whole business back: wherein can this disadvantage us? I dare say, confidently, wo shall have as much favour from his maj. as ever any subjects had from their king.'
Sir Tho. WentwortA.] 'When we set down the time, let us he sure the subjects liberties go hand in hand together; then to resolve of the time; but not report it to the house, till we have a ground, and a bill for our liberties: this is the way to come off fairly, and prevent jealousies.'—Hereupon the committee of the whole house resolved, That Grievances and Supply go hand in hand.
Another Message from the King to hasten the Supply.} April 12. Mr. Sec. Cooke delivered another Slessage from the king, viz.*
'His maj. having given timely notice to this house, as well of the pressure of the time, as of the necessity of Supply, hath long since expected some fruit of that which was so happily begun ; but finding a stop beyond all expectation, nay beyond all example, after so good beginning, he hath commanded me to tell you, That, without any further or unnecessary delay, he would have you to proceed in his business; for, however, he hath been willing that his affairs and ours should concur and proceed together; yet his meaning was not, that the one should give interruption to the other; nop the time to be spun out upon any pretence, to hinder that resolution, upon which the common cause of this kingdom, and even, of all Christendom doth so much depend: he bids us, therefore, take heed, that we force not him (by our tedious and unnecessary dalays) to make an unpleasing end of that which was so well begun.'—I will discharge my duty. I humbly desire this house, not to undervalue or overstrain this Message ; if we conceive any thing in it to tend, as ifliis maj. threatened to dissolve this parliament, we arc deceived; his maj. intends the contrary, and to put us in such a way, that our business may have speedy success. His maj. takes notice of a peremptory order, whereby he conceived, that Ins business was excluded, at least for a time; and that which doth most press his maj. is time: believe me the affairs now in hand press his majesty's heart more than us. Let us remove delays that are mors than necessary; let us awaken ourselves; he intends a speedy dispatch. I must, with some grief, tell you, that notice is taken, ns if this house pressed not only upon the abuses of power, but upon power itself; thistoucheth the kins, and us who are supported by that power: let the king hear of any abuses of power; he will willingly hear us; and let us not bend ourselves against the extcntion of his royal power, but contain our
* From Sir John Napier's MS.
selves within those bounds, that we meddle only with pressures and abuses of pow er; and wc shall liave the best satisfaction that ever king gave. I beseech you all to concur this way, and use that moderation we have not hud the honour yet to gain.'
Being moved to explain what he meant by the word 'power,' which, he said, we did oppose; he answered, 'I cannot descend to particulars, or go from that his mnj. gave me warrant or power to deliver.' This Message ■was very impleading to the house, and many de bates succeeded thereupon.
Sir Rob. Philips said, 'lie hoped their moderation would have given his maj. a right understanding of their loyalty.'
Mr. SeC. Cooke again. 'All negociations of embassadors arc at a stop while the house sits; this stop is as a frost upon the earth, that hinders the sweet vapours between his maj. and his subjects; and as matters stand, the soldiers can neither be disbanded, nor put in service.'
Mr. Wavtfesforrl. 'This motion conies uucxpectcdly, but it is fit to receive some satisfaction: the proceeding now with our Grievances will open the stop that hinders his iiiaj.'s affairs.'
Sir H. May. 'Sweetness, trust, and confidence are the only w eapons for us to deal with our king: coldness, inforceinent, mid constraint will never work our ends: if we Compass all we desire, and have not his maj.'s heart, w hat good will a law or any thing else do us?'
Sir Tim. Wentrvorth*. 'I cannot help lamenting the unlawful courses and slights, for which the only excuse is necessity. We arc required to give; but before we can resolve to give, it must be determined what we have to give; what heavy fogs have of late darkened our hemisphere, and yet hangover us, portending our ruin, none is so weak as to he ignorant or. What unsteady courses to dispel these mists, have been pursued, and thereby raised near us great storms, I take no pleasure to remember: yet, in all bodies diseased, the knowledge precedes the cure. I will shortly tell the principals; next their remedies. 1 must reduce them into two heads: One, whereby our persons have been injured; the other w hereby, our estates have suffered. Our persons have been injured, both by imprisonment without law; nay against law, boundless and without bank; and by being designed to some office, charge and employment, foreign or domestic, as a brand of infamy and mark of disgrace. Oh! Mr. Speaker, when it may not be safe to deny payments upon unjust exactions, but we must go to prison for it: nor, in this place, to speak our consciences, but we must be stamped to unwilling and untitling employments! Our estates have been racked two ways; one in the Loan, wherein 5 Subsidies were exacted; and that hy commission of men of quality
• Taken from a MS. in the Harleinn Library.
and instructions to prosecute the same with nn asperity which no times can parallel. And hence the other consideration, of the projectors and executioners of it: nay, this wits not all, but ministers, in their pulpits have preached it as gospel, and damned the refusers of it: so then we are already doomed to damnation! The second way wherein our estates Lsre suffered, hatb been, and yet is in being, by Billeting of Soldiers in most counties in this kingdom. These rough ways lead neither to the kind's prorit, nor the kingdom's safety: the former may appear by the emptiness of the exchequer and sale of the nnticnt crown-lands: the latter by the imminent and deep dangers that are ready to swallow us up: but I take no pleasure in touching these strings. I conclude with this motion, That we name a committee to consult on these Grievances, and to digest them moderately, discreetly, and truly, into an humble Petition; and let no man distrust his maj. or judge this way a breakneck of parliaments; hut a way of honour to the king, nay of profit; for besides the Supply which we shalhreadily give him suitable to hi« occasions, we give him our hearts. Our heart', Mr. Speaker, a «ift that God calls for, and lit for n king.'—Hereupon it was ordered, That a special committee of ten members do presently withdraw themselves, and consult together upon some heads, and upon the substance of a fair Representation to his maj.; which the speaker shall deliver in his speech to his maj. on Monday next, if the king please to give access; and at the same time to deliver the Petition against Billeting of Soldiers. 1 hi< was done accordingly, and, upon the report agreed to by the house, as follows:'
"The Instructions of the Commons to tlici Speaker, in answer to the king's Mcs sage of the 11th of April, by Secretin, Cooke *.
"I. That it is the antient right of parliamen to dispose of matters, there debated, ifl thoi own method. II. That it is their antien custom, to consider of Grievances before mat ters of Supply. III. That yet nevertheless in this parliament, to expre ss our affection f his maj. contrary to our ordinary proceedine: we have proceeded in the Supply, as far as « could, in that committee. IV. Thiswehav been so far from delaying, that, postponing th common nnd pressing Grievances of thenatioi we have given precedency to the Supply joining with it only the fundamental and vit: liberties of the kingdom, that give subsistenc ] to the subject. V. Further to express th fulness of our loyalty and affection to tli king, we have exceeded our order in that pai ticlar concerning the Supply; which, thoui; later in proposition, yet hath been first mad ready for conclusion in the committee. \
* These Instructions are omitted in Rust worth, and in the Journals; hut are supplie from the ll.ulciau MS. before mcntionrd.
No person or council can be greater lovers of, or more careful to maintain, the sacred rights ami prerogatives of the crown, than we: and we do conceive, that the maintaining of the fundamental rights and liberties of the subject is an essential means to establish the glory of a monarch; and that by it his subjects are the better enabled to do him service; which hath been formerly die cause of many glorious victories won by this nation, • above other kingdoms of larger territories, and greater number of people. VII. What information is given to his maj. contrary to this, doth proceed from.such persons as, to serve their own ends, under colour of advancing his majesty's prerogative, do, in fact, weaken the royal power. VIII. We trust to he cleared in Ins majesty's judgment, that there hath been no unnecessary stop, but a mutt chcarfu! proceeding in the matter ofSupply: anil thcreforowedo humbly desire that his niaj. will take no information, in this, or any other business, from private relations, but to judge of'our proceedings by such Resolutions as shall be presented to his majesty Irom this house. IX. Being thus rightly and graciously understood, we assure ourselves that tlie end of this parliament shall be more happy than (he beginning."
The. Speaker's Speech to the King, on prelenting the Petition against Billetting of Soldiers.] In pursuance of these Instructions the Speaker introduced the Petition of the Commons to the King, relating to the Billetting of Soldiers, with the following speech,* on the 14th of April, being Easter-Monday.
"Most gracious and dread suvereign; Your dutiful and loyal commons here assembled, «ere lately humble suitors to your mnj. for access to your royal presence: the occasion that moved their desires here in, was a particular of importance, worthy your princely consideration; and which, as it well deserves, should We been the only subject of my speech at this time.—But since your gracious Answer for this access, obtained by a Message from your inaj.; they have had some cause to doubt, that vourmaj. is not so well satisfied with the manner of their proceedings, as their hearty desire is you should he; especially in that part w hich concerns your mnj.'s present Supply, as if, in 'lie prosecution thereof, they had used some slackness or delay.—And, because no unhappiness of theirs can parallel with that which may proceed from a misunderstanding in your nwj. of their clear and loyal intentions, they have commanded me to attend your inaj. with an humble and summary declaration of their proceedings, since this short time of their sit•ing; which they hope will give your maj. abundant satisfaction that never people did more truly desire to be endeared in the favour and gracious opinion uf their sovereign; and w ithal to let your maj. see, that as you can have nn where more faithful counsel, so your great de
* From Rushworth, corrected by the Manuscript.
signs and occasions can no way he so speedily or heartily supported, as in this old and undent way of parliament.—Fur this purpose they humbly intreatyour maj.to take into your royal consideration, that, although by antieut right of parliament, the matters there debated are to be digested in their own method and order, and that their constant custom hath been, to take into their consideration the common Grievances of the kingdom, before they enter upon the matter of Supply; yet to make a full expression of that zeal and affection which they hear to your royal person, equalling at least, if not exceeding the host affections of their predecessors to the best of your progenitors y they have in this assembly, contrary to the ordinary proceedings of parliament, given your inaj.* Supply precedence before the common Grievance of the subject, how "pressing soever; joining with it, only, those fundamental and vital liberties of the kingdom, w hich give subsistence and ability to your subjects.—This was their original order and resolution; and was grounded upon a true discernment, that these two considerations could not be severed; but did both of thein equally concern your maj's service; consisting no less in enabling and encouraging the subject, than in proportioning a present suiting to your mnj.'s occasions and their abilities: nay, so far have they been from using any unnecessary delays, that though, of the two, the Supply were the later proposition amongst them, yet the grand committee to which both w ere referred, hath made that first ready for conclusion.—And to be certain that your tnuj.'s Supply might receive no interruption by the other, they have, differing from usage and custom (in cases of this nature) sent up, of those that concern the subjects, by parcels, some to your maj. and some to the lords; to the end your mnj. might receive such speedy content, as suited w ith the largest and best extent of their first order.—Sir, you are the breath of our nostrils, and the light of our eyes; and besides those many comforts, which under you and your royal progenitors, in this frame of government, this nation hath enjoyed, the very religion we profess hath taught us whose image you are; anil we do all most humbly beseech your maj. to believe, that nothing is or ever can be more dear unto u3 than the sacred rights and prerogatives of your crow n : no person or counsel can be greater lovers of them, nor be morn truly careful to maintain them: and the preserving those fundamental liberties, which concern the freedom of our persons, and property in our goods and estates, is an essential means to establish the true glory of a monarch.—For rich and free subjects, as they are best governed, so they are most able to do vour maj. service, cither in peace or war; which, next under God, hath been the cause of the happy and famous victories of this nation, beyond other kingdoms of larger territories, anil greater numbers of people.—What information soever contrary to this shall he brought'unto your maj. cat) come from no other than such as for their