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Tro additional Sidsidies t otal.] Dec. 23. The commons having resolved itself into a committee of tho whole home, on the Supply, it «as resolved, "That two Subsidies more should be a ided to those Subsidies already agreed upon, to he employed to the same uses, or to mcb as thi* house shall appoint." On this occasion,

Mr lien/. Hudyard* rose nnd snid: 'Air. Speaker; The principal part of'this business is money; and now we are about it, I shall be rjad wemav jive so much as will not only serve the turn for the present, but likewise to provide that it come not quick upon us again: I believe that the two Subsidies are spent already. We know how much time this business h:ith cost us; if we be but half as long about toother, it may cost more tbnn money: for if t«o armies should he driven to extreme neccstity, (and they will be judges of their own necessity) we shall not be able to sit lu re, ami fire more, though we wotdd. Relieve it, sir, this is the business of all the businesses in the house; of all the businesses in the kingdom: |f we stand hacking for a lii tic money, we may very thriftily lose all wc buve; this being a business of so peremptory and destructive a traturt. Wherefore, my huiubie, and earnest iw.rrnn is, That wc may dispatch it fully, and at once ; if there should be an overplus of moDry remaining, «ie can soon resolve hdw to 'Impose of it. Four Subsidies will do the work, i: [hey be given presently; for every day tells u« that wc are not so much masters of our own time nnd occasions, ns to do every thing when »c would:' let ns do this whilst we may. though I dwell not in the North, yet I dwell in England.'

Be Ahp. of Canterbury's Petition to the Lirrfj,] The same day a Petition was presented t'> the lords from the archbishop of Canterbury, i.i these words:

"That whereas your lordships petitioner, "hen he was to withdraw and leave that honourable assembly, gave offence to your lord'hips in tome thing which passed from him iu bis speech, he is very heartily sorry for the Mine; and most humbly praycth that your lordships will pass by that passionate offence, pressed from your petitioner by the weight and | unexpectedness of the charge whic h fell upon I'im. And that your honourable lordships *ould be pleased to grant that your humble petitioner may hav e some liberty to take the for his health's sake, under what safeMnrd your lordships shall think fit; and this a regard that his health begins to fail him i!ready, by reason the house where he is ■nth no place in which he may take any fresh "tut all."

Whereupon the houso ordered, "That the j irclibUhop should take the air, for'his health's sikr, in company with Mr. Maxwell, the gen-«"ian usher, to any place excepting the

w'lkdTM"1 t'1C ""S'1^ Cl'lt'0n rr'mc<! by Tho.

Spring-Garden, or any belonging to the king's: house. Hut to be suffered tospcak with nobody nt that time out of the presence of the said usher, and he to be answerable for his grace's forthcoming."

Information against Dr. Piers Pi/hop of Path and MVtVs.] Dec. 2-t. It was resolved, by the commons, upon the question, ' That, upon several Informations and Complaints to this house made against Dr. Wni. Piers, bishop of Hath and Wells, of divers heinous crimes, tending to corruption nnd subversion of religion in that diocese, and other misdemeanors of a high nature, a message shall be sent to the lords, to desire them to take security from himself, and others, to be forthcoming, and to stand and abide the judgment of parliament. Sir II. Mildniay to go up with this message.' This was done accordingly, and the bishop, by himself ond sureties, was bound in 10,000/. bond to answer this Charge of the commons against him.

Alteration* in the Judges Patent*.] Jan. 15. About the beginning of this month a motion having been made, 'That for the future, this clause, ' Quamdiusc bene gesserint,' might be? inserted in the patents of the Judges, instead of 'Durante beneplacito;' and a committee having been appointed to wait on the king with this rcquesr, the cnrl marshal and the lord Chamberlain reported this day, That his majesty condescended to the desired alteration for the future.

Pill for frequent holding of Parliaments.] Jan. 10. A Bill was brought in and read, culled, 'A bill for preventing Inconvenience happening by the long Intermission of Parliaments;' and, upon the question, ordered to be engrossed. The next day it passed the commons, and was sent up to the lords. In the course of its progress through the commons,

Lord Digliy* addressed the house thus r 'Mr. Speaker; I rise not now, with an intent to speak to the frame and structure of this bill, nor much by way of answer to objections that may be made; I hope there will be no occasion for this, but that we shall concur, all unanimously, in w hat concerneth all so universally. (July, sir, by way of preparation, to the end that we may not be discouraged in this great work, by difficulties that may appear iu the way of it, I shall deliver unto you my apprehensions in general, of the vast importance and necessity that wc should go through with it. The result of my sense is, in short, this, That, unless for the frequent convening of parliaments, there be some such course settled as may not be eluded, neither the people cun bo prosperous and secure, nor the king himself solidly happy. I take this to be the union nccessarinm: let us procure ibis, and all our other desires will effect themselves. If this hill miscarry, I shall have left me no public hopes; and, once past, I shall be freed of all

* From the original edition, printed by Tho mas Walkley.

public fcars.—The csscntinlncss, sir, of frequent j parliaments, to the happiness of this kinedom, might be inferred unto yon by ilie reason of contraries, and from the woful experience which former times have hud of the mischievous elfects of any long intermission of them. But, Mr. Speaker, why should we climb higher than the level we are on; or think furtlier than our horizon; or have rerourse for examples in this business to any other promptuary than our own memories; nay, than the experience almost of the youngest here? The reflection, backward, on the distractions of former times upon inter- I aiission of parliaments, and the consideration, forward, of the mischiefs likely still to prow from the Npu cause, if not removed, douhrlesly gave first life and being to those two dormant statutes of Edw. 3. for the yearly holding of a parliament: and shall not the fresh and bleeding experience, in the present age, of miseries from the same spring, not to be paralelled in any other, obtain a wakening, a resurrection for them? The intestine distempers, sir, of former ages upon the want of parliaments, may appear to have hud snme other CO-operative causes; us, sometimes unsuccessful ■wars abroad; sometimes, the absence of the prince; sometimes, competitions of titles to the crown; sometimes, perhaps, the vices of the king; himself. I^et us only consider the posture, the aspect of this slate, both toward itself and the rest of the world-: the person of our sovereign, and the nature of our suffering, since the 3d of his reign: u;;d there can be no cause, colourably inventible, "hereunto to attribute them, but the intermission, or, which is worse, the undue frustration of parliaments, by tlie unlucky use, if not abuse, of prerogative in the dissolving them. Take into your view,'Mr. Speaker, a kingdom in a state of the greatest quiet and security that can be fancied; not only enjoying tlie calmest peace itsrlf, but, to improve and secure its happy condition, all the rest of the world at the same time in tempests, in combustions, in uncoraposabh* wars, l ake into your view, sir, a king, sovereign of three kingdoms, by a concentring of all the royal lines in his person, as indisputably as any mathematical ones in Euclid; a king. Grin*and knowing in his religion, eminent in virtue; a king, that hath, in his own time, given all the rights and liberties of liis subjects a more clear and ample confirmation, freely and graciously (I mean in the Petition of Right) than any of) his predecessors, (when .the people had them at advantage) extortedly. This is one map of England, Mr. Speaker. A man, sir, that should present unto you, now, a kingdom, groaning under that supreme law which salus populi periclitata would enact; the liberty, the property, of the subject fundamentally subverted,! never'so cxoinplarily: let liim make choice of

this is a map of England too, and both at tin-
same time but tuo true.—A s it cannot be denied.
Mr. Speaker, that, since the Conquest, there
hath not been in tliis kingdom n fuller concur-
rence of all circumstances in the former charac-
ter, to have made a kingdom happy, tlian lor
these 12 years last past; soil is must certain, that
there hath not been, in all that deduction of
age*,, such a conspiracy, if one may so say, of
all the elements of mischief in the second cb-
racter, to bring a flourishing kingdom, is' it
were possible, to swift ruin und desolation. I
will be buld to say, (and I thank God, web;
so good a king, under whom we may speak
boldly of the abuse of his power, by ili ministers,
without reflection upon his person) that an accu-
mulation of all the public siuce M«-
Charta, one upon another, unto that hour in
which the Petitiou of ltight passed into an act «i"
parliament, would not amount to so oppressive.
I am sure not to so destructive, a height and
magnitude to the rights and property of the
subject, us one brauch of our beslaving since
the Petition of Right! The branch I mean a
the Judgment concerning Ship-Money.—This
being a true representation of England, in both
aspects, let hiiu, Mr. Speaker, that (for tbe un-
matched oppression and enthralling of free
subjects, in a time of the best king's reign, and
in memory of the best laws enacted in favour
of subjects liberty) can find a truer cause than
the ruptures and intermission of parliaments;
letliim, I say, and him alone, be against tin
settling of this inevitable way for the frequent
holding of them.-—It is true, sir, wicked mins-
ters have been the proximate causes of oor
miseries; but the want of Parliaments the pri-
mary, the efficient causes: ill ministers have
made ill times; but that, sir, hath made ill ai\-
ni»teis. I have read, among the law soft!*
Athenians, a form of recourse, in their oaths
and vows of their greatest and public concern-
ment, to a threefold deity, Supplicium e%aud-
tori, purgatori, malorum depulsori. I douk
not but we, ht re assembled for the common-
wealth in tliis parliament, shall meet with al'
these attributes in our sovereign. I makci!''
question but he will graciously hear our sup-
plications, purge away our grievances, and
expel malefactors; that is, remove ill ministers,
and put good in their places. No less can I*
expected from his wisdom and goodness.—Put
let me tell you, Mr. Speaker, it'we partake n,jt
of one attribute more in him ; if we address
not ourselves unto that, I mean bonorum con-
scrvatori, we can. have no solid, no durable
comfort in all the rest: for lathis majesty hear
our complaints never so compassionately:
him purge a>" ay our grievances never so effio
ciously: let him punish and dispel ill ministers

ravished away by the violence of a pretended necessity; a triple crown slutking with distempers; men of the best conscience ready to fly into the wilderness for religion! Would not one swear that this were the antipodes to the other? And yet, let me tell you, Mr. Speaker,

good ones never so exactly: yet, if there be no! a way settled to preser-vc and keep them food, the mischiefs and they will all grow airain like Sampson's locks, and pull down the house iipf1 our Lewis. Relieve it, Mr. Speaker, theyi11 It hatk been a maxim among the wisest legi*

Istors, That whosoever means to settle good laws, must proceed in them with a sinister opinion of all mankind, and suppose, that whosoever is not wicked, it is for want only of the opportunity. It is that opportunity of being ill, that we must take away, if ever w e mean to be happy; which can never be done, hut hy the frequency of Parliaments. No state can wisely be confident of any public minister's continuing ;ood, longer than the rod is over him. Let me appeal to all those that were present in this house, at the ngitntion of the Petition of Right; nnd let them tell us truly «f whose promotion to the management of affairs do they think the generality would, nt that time, have had better hopes than of the late Mr. Noy nnd sir Tho. Wentworth; both being at that time, ;ind in that business, as I have heard, most keen and active patriots ; and the latter of them, (to the eternal aggravation if his infamous treachery to the commonwealth be it spoken) the first mover and insister to have this clause added to the Petition of Right, 'That, for the comfort and safety of his majesty's subjects, he would be pleased to declare bis will and pleasure, that all his ministers should serve htm according to the laws and itatutes of the realm.' (See p. 377).—And yet, Mr. Speaker, to whom now can all the inundations upon our liberties, under pretence of law, and the late shipwreck, at once, of all our property, be attributed more than to Noy: and those, and all other mischiefs whereby this monarchy hath been brought almost to the brink of destruction, so much to any as to that frand apostate to the commonwealth, the now lieutenant of Ireland? The first I hope God bath forgiven in the other world; and the latter must not hope to be pardoned in this, till he to dispatched to the other. Let every man consider those men as once there were; ■ excellent law for the security of the snbj'tt, enacted immediately before their coming to employment, in the contriving whereof fhtnilelves were principal actors; the goodness nnd virtue of the king they served; and v< t the ben and public oppressions that, in his time, they hare wrought; nnd surely there is no man tot will conclude with me, that, as the defiance of parliaments hath heen the causa cnularumoisill the mischiefs and distempers of the pre<ent times; so the frequency "( tlicni is the sole catholic antidote that can preserve and secure the future from the like.—Mr. .Speaker, l*t me yet draw my discourse a little nearer to majesty himself, and tell you, that the fre•Mncy of parliaments is most essentially ne•etEvry to the power, the security, the glory of the king. There are two ways, Mr. Speaker, '!powerful rule,either by fear,-or love; but wlj one of happy and safe rule, that is, by tore; that • Firmissimnm imperium quo obedientes gaudent:' to this Camillus advised the Romans. Let a prince consider what it is that noves a people, principally, to affection and Nearness towards their sovereign, he shall see ttat thete needs no other artifice In it than to W. II.

let them enjoy, unmolestedly, what belongs unto them or right: if that hath been invaded and violated in any kind, whereby affectioris are alienated, the next consideration for a wise prince, that would be happy, is how to regain them; to which 3 things are equally necessary. 1. Reinstating them in their former liberty. Q, Revenging them of the authors of those violations; and, 3. Securing them from apprehensions of the like again. The first, God be thanked, we ar« in a good way of. The second in warm pursuit of. Hut the third, as essential as all the rest, till we be certain of Triennial Parliaments, at the least, I profess I can have but cold hopes of.—I beseech you then, since that securtty for the future is so necessary to that blessed union of affections, and this bill so necessary to that security; let us not be so wanting to ourselves, let us not he so wanting to oitr sovereign, as to forbear to offer unto him this powerful, this everlasting philter, to charm unto him the hearts of his people, whose virtue can never evaporate. There is no man, Mr. Speaker, so secure of another's friendship, but will think frequent intercourse nnd access very requisite to the support, to the confirmation of it: especially if ill offices have been done between them; if the raising of jealousies hath been attempted. There is no friend but would be impatient to be debarred from giving his friend succour and relief in his necessities.—Mr. Speaker, permit me the comparison of great things with little. What friendship, what union can there be so comfortable, so happy, as between a gracious sovereign and his people? And what greater misfortune can there be to both, than to be kept horn intercourse, from the means of clearing misunderstandings, from interchange of mutual benefits ? The people of England, sir, c iniiot open their ears, their hearts, their mouths, or their purses, to his majesty, but in parliament. We can neither hear him, nor complain, nr.r acknowledge, nor give, but there. This bill, sir, is the sole key that can open the way to a frequency of those reciprocal endearments, which must make and perpetuate the happiness of the king and kingdom. Let no man object any derogation from the king's prerogative by it. We do but present the bill, it is to be made a law by him. His honour, his ;iower, will be as conspicious in commanding at once that parliaments shall assemble every third year, as in commanding a parliament to be called this or that year. There is more of majesty in ordaining primary and universal causes, than in the actuating particularly of subordinate effects. I doubt not but that glorious king Edw. 3. when he made those laws for the yearly calling of parliaments, did it with a right sense of bis dignity and honour. The truth is, sir, the king's of England ate never in their glory, in their spUndor, ih their majestic sovereignty, but in parliament. Wh ere is the power of imposing taxes? Where it the power of restoring from incapacities? Where is the legislative authority? Marry, in

the king, Mr. Speaker. But how? In tlie king circled in, fortified and evirtualed by, his parliament. The king, out of parliament, hath a Jiniiled, a circumscribed jurisdiction: but, waited on by his parliament, no monarch of the East is so absolute in dispelling grievances. Mr. Speaker, in chasing ill ministers, we do Dut dissipate clouds that may gather again; but, in voting this bill, we shall contribute, as much as in us lies, to the perpetuating our sun, our sovereign, in his vertical, in his noon-day, lustre.'

Jan. 20. The Votes of the commons, concerning Ship-Money, were sent up to the lords, by Mr. St. John, who made a learned speech on that occasion. Afterwards the lords proceeded to vote the illegality of it; which they did in the same manner as the commoiis, Dec. 7, nem. con.

Four Members expelled for being Monopolists.] Jan. 21. The commons expelled 4 of their members, Mr. Wm. Sandys, sir John Jacob, Mr. Tho. Webb, and Mr. Edm. Windham, for beings Monopolists, according to a former order of this house. See p. 051.

A Sum voted for the Rt'ief of the Srors.] Jan. 32. In a grand committee of the whole house, after long and serious debate, they came to this Resolution, 'That this house thinks fit that a friendly Assistance and Relief shall be given towards the Supply of the Losses and Necessities of the Scots; and that, in due time, this house will take notice of the measure and manner of it.' Upon this occasion,

Sir John Wray* delivered himself to this purport:—' Mr..Speaker; There is no malady more destructive to the natural or politic body, than the Morbus caducus, or falling-sickne ss; nor is there any physick or compound more to be esteemed than that which can cure it in either. Mr. Speaker, this unknown remedy, if we be wise to npply jt, and take the receipt with all the ingredients, without any scruple of distaste, I am confident the recovery will be perfect, and the whole body of Grtat Britain safe and sound. Mr. Speaker, the happy Union Of Scotland and England hath thus long, ever since, flourished in interchangeable blessings of plenty, and mutual love and friendship: but of late, by what fatal disasters and dark underminings we are divided, and severed into Scots

worship but one God, and serve but one with us: nor need we fear that they intend in dispossess the English of their inheritance or freehold, being ready to withdraw their forces upon reasonable terms, referring their demand* of reparation for losses, to the justice and courtesy of this house; which I assure .myself will give both a bountiful, chc-arful, and speedy supply in this case of necessity; for, ' bis uat, qui cito dat,' in the best motto, or motion at this time.'

Sir Benj. Rudyurii made the following speech upon the same occasion :—' Mr, Speaker; It will become us thankfully to acknowledge tbt .prudent and painful endeavours of my lords, the peers commissioners, in treating with the Scots, and in mediating with the king; whereby, God assisting, we are now probably drawing near to a blessed peace. His majesty, m his wisdom and uoodness, is graciously pleased to give his royal assent to their acts ot parliament, wherein the Articles of their assembly are likewise included; insomuch as their religion, their laws, their liberties, are ratified arid established, besides their Grievances retard and redressed, for which we use to give tlx king money, and are still ready to dp it. This, although it be a large, yet it is not received is a full satisfaction. Resides, when they canie into England, they published in a Remonstrance, 'That they « ould take nothing Oi the English, but what they would pay for, or gue security:' we have defrayed them hitherto, arid have provided to do it longer. They may remember, that we assisted them in the time of their reformation; and it is not to be forgotten, that we did bear our own chars*;.. Concerning mutual restitution of ships a»<l goods, my lords the commissioners h.tveu.y fairly and discreetly accommodated that particular already. As for inferential and consequential damages, such a representation wuuid but administer unacceptable matter of dis ference and contestation; which, anions/ friends, ought to be warily and wisely avoided We could alledge, and truly too, that Noriir umberland, New castle, and the Bishnprick. * Jl not recover their former state these 20 years. We have heard ii spoken here m this hotter, by an understanding knowing member in t'»n particular, That the coal mines of Newcaine

and English armies, let their well-composed j will not be set right again for 100,000/, besi*-» p-.cambles speak for me; which I wish were printed as an excellent emblem of brotherly It ve, that discovers who hath wounded us both, i nd how each should strive to help the other in distress; seeing their and our religion and laws lye both at stake together. Think of it what you will, noble senate, their subsistance is ours; we live or die, rise or fall together. Let us then liud out the Boutefeu of this prelatical war, and make them to pay the shot for their labour; who, no doubt, long for nothing more than that we should break with them, who

* From the original edition, printed by. Francis Constable,'1641.

the over price of coals, which all the while ;i hath and will cost this city, and other parts ui the kingdom. A great deal more of this nature might be rehearsed; but I delight aotio press such tenter-stretched arguments: lei us, on both sides, rather thank God, by proceeding in the way he hath laid before lis, and wrv nut his way to ours: time and his blessing will repair (ill our implicit damages, with many prosperous explicit advantages. They say, tlui they do not make any formal demand, t« they do make a sum to appear, 511,000/. which is more than ever we guve the king at once. A portentous apparition, which shews itself' in a very dry tune; when the king's mriiue d totally exhausted, his debts excessively multiplied, the kingdom generally impoverished bv ixievous burthens and disordered course*! All tins supply is to be drawn out of us only, without the least help from any of his majesty's ether dominions; which to my seeming, will bp an utter draining of the people, unless England be puteus inexhaustus, as the Popes were wont to call it.—Notwithstanding, sir, now that I have in part opened the state we are in, 'liough nothing so exactly as they have done theirs, I shall most willingly nnd heartily afford tiie Scots whatsoever is just, equitable, and honourable, even to a convenient, considerable, round sum of money, towards their losses and expences, that we may go off with a friendly and handsome loss: if they reject it, we shall improve our cause. It was never yet thought, Mr. Speaker, any great wisdom, over much to trust a successful sword. A mau that ivalks upon a rising ground, the further he goes, the larser is his prospect; success enlarges men's dvsircs, extends their ambition, it breeds tlioughts in thei they never thought before; tins is natural aim usual But the Scots being traly touched with religion, according to their frolession, that only is able to make them keep their word; for religion is stronger and wiser than reason, or even reasons of state.—Beyond all this, Mr. Speaker, the remarkable traces of Hod's wonderful Providence in 1 thi6 strange *ork, are so many, so apparent, as I cannot but hope, almost to belief, thnt the same alimenting merciful hand, will conduct nnd lead us to a happy conclusion; will contract a closer, tinner uuion between the two nations, than any raeer human policy could ever have effected, with inestimable benefits to both; in advancing the truth of religion; in exalting the greatness of the king; in securing the peace of his kingdoms, against nil malicious, envious, ambitious oppoaites to religion, to the kme, to his kingdoms; wherein I presume, all Pur desires and piaveis do meet.*

On the 3rd of Feb. the Affair of the Scots *as ajain taken, into consideration, by a comKittee of the whole house; and it was resolved, »n the question, "That this house doth conceive that the sum of 300.000/. is a fit proportion for the friendly Assistance and Rohef formerly thought proper to be tiven towards tlx supply of the Losses and Necessities of our brethren oi Scotland; and that this house will, in due time, take into consideration the manner how, and the time when, the same shall be raised."

We Scots Commissioners return Thanks.] The next day this Resolution of the commons *as made known to the lords, at a conference, and 3 days after, we find an Answer of the Scots Commissioners entered in the Lords' Journals, by way of returning their thanks for this extraordinary bounty; which we give in its own words:—" We intreat your lordships, whose endeavours God hath blessed in this great "ork, to make known to the parliament, that *t do no less desire to shew our thankfulness

for their friendly assistance and relief, than we have been earnest in demanding the same. But the thankfulness which we conceive to be due, does not consist in our affections or words at this tune, but in the mutual kindness and real declarations to be expected from the whole kingdom of Scotland, in all times to come: and that, not only for the measure and proportion which the parliament hath conceived to be fit, and which, to begin our thankfulness now, we do, in the name of the whole kingdom, chearfully accept of; but also for the kind and Christian manner of grunting it unto us, as to their Brethren; which addeth a weight above many thousands, and cannot be compensated, but by paying the reciprocal love and duty of Brethren; and for the Resolution, To consider, in due time, for the raising the same for our relief, which also maketh the benefit to be double. This makes us confident that God, whose working at this time hath been wonderful, hath decreed the peace and amity of the kingdoms, and will remove all rubs out of the way, that our enemies at last will despair to divide us, when they see that God hath joined us in such a fraternity; and that Divine Providence will plentifully recompence unto the kingdom of England their justice and kindness, and unto Scotland all their losses; which shall, by these and other means amongst ourselves, be repaired by the rich and sweet blessing of the purity and power of the gospel, attended with the benefit of a happy and durable peace, under his majesty's long and prosperous reign, and of his royal posterity to all generations." Dated Feb. 5, 1640.

A Conference cottcerning the King's reprieving Goodman, a condemned Seminary Priest.] Jan. 23. The commons sent up to desire a conference with the lords, which being agreed to, a report of it was made in the upper house, by the lord privy seal, to this effect:—" That Mr. Glynn had acquainted them with the commons sending to the city of London, to advance money for his majesty's service, and that of the comraonwealtli; answer was returned, That there was a general discontent amongst the citizens, for the reprieval of one Goodman, a seminary priest, lately condemned fur lii^h treason, who had been formerly so for the same offence, and banished this kingdom. By which they found that there was a great connivance at Jesuits and Priests through the kingdom, to the great disheartening of the people in this time of parliament, when they expect a thorough reformation. The co nmons, therefore, desired their lordships assistance to discover such instruments as have dared to intercede for the interruption of public justice against such offenders, tkc." The lord* thought proper to acquaint the king with this message from the commons, and appointed the lord privy seal and the earl marshal to deliver it.

The King's Speech relitirg to the Distractions in the Government.] This day, the king having commanded both houses to come b*.

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