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issue forth to any person or persons whatsoever, he damns them for not obeying them. 3. He to be executed as aforesaid, lest, by colour of robs the subjects of the property of their goods. them, any of your majesty's subjects be de- 4. He brands them that will not lose this prostroyed or put to death, contrary to the laws perty, with most scandalous speech and odious and franchise of the land.--All which they titles; to make them both hateful to prince most bumbly pray of your most excellent maj. and people; so to set a division between the as their Rights and Liberties, according to the head and the members, and between the memlaws and statutes of this realm: and that your bers themselves. 5. To the same end, not maj. would also vouchsafe to declare, That the much unlike to Faux and his fellows, he seeks awards, doings and proceedings, to the pre- to blow up parliaments and parliamentary judice of your people, in any of the premisses, powers. These five, being duly viewed, will shall not be drawn hereafter into consequence appear to be so many charges; and they make or example: and that your maj, would be also up altogether the great and main charge ; a graciously pleased for the further comfort and mischievous plot to altor and subvert the frame safety of your people, to declare your royal and government of this state and commonwill and pleasure, that, in the things aforesaid, wealth. And now, though you may be sure, all your officers and ministers shall serve you, that Mr. Manwaring leaves us no property according to the laws and statutes of this in our goods; yet, that he hath an absolute realm, as they tender the honour of your | property in this charge, Audite ipsam Belluam. maj. and the prosperity of this kingdom." Hear himself making up his own charge."

| Here Mr. Rouse read several passages out of The King's ANSWER.

his book, and then proceeded, “ You have “ The king willeth, that Right be done ac- | heard his Charge made up by his own words, cording to the laws and customs of the realm; and withal I doubt not but you seem to hear and that the statutes be put in due execution, the voice of that wicked one Quid dabitis? that his subjects may have no cause to com- What will you give me, and I will betray this plain of any wrongs or oppressions, contrary to state, kingdom, and commonwealth? But there their just Rights and Liberties, to the preserva are two observations (I might add a third, tion whereof, he holds himself, in conscience, which is like unto' A three-fold cord which as well obliged, as of his own prerogative.cannot easily be broken) will draw the charge

Before we proceed to give an account how the more violently upon him. The first is of the Commons relished the King's Answer to their time wben this doctrine of destruction was set Petition of Rigbt, it is necessary here to insert forth; it was preached in the heat of the Loan, an affair, which happened about this time, and and of those Imprisonments which accompanied which proved of some consequence in the the Loan; and it was printed in the beginning sequel.

of that term, which ended in a remittitur: so Mr. Rouse's Charge against Dr. Manwaring. ] that you might guess there might be a double June 3. Mr. Kouse, a member of the house of plot, both by law and conscience, to set on fire commons, brought in a Charge to that house the frame and estate of this coinmonwealth ; against one Dr. Roger Manwaring, which some and one of these entailed foxes was Mr. Mandays after was seconded with a declaration, waring. Another note may be taken of the which he delivered in this manner.* _" Mr. time, that is, the unseasonableness of it; for Speaker, I am to deliver, from the committee, a this doctrine of the Loan, in case of necessity, Charge against Mr. Manwaring, a preacher was the year after an assent in parliament, to and doctor of divinity, but a man so criminous, | 4 Subsidies and 3 fifteens; which might have that he hath turned his titles into accusation ; served for a sufficient stopple for the doctor's for the better they are, the worse is he that mouth, to keep in his doctrine of vecessity, dishonours them. Here is a great charge that A second observation may be of the means, lies upon him, it is great in itself, and great be- by which he seeks to destroy this commoncause it hath many great charges in it; “Ser- wealth; his means are divinity, yea, by his dipens qui serpentem devorat fit draco ;' his vinity he would destroy both king and king, charge, having digested many charges into it, dom. 1. The king: for can there be a greater becomes a monster of charges. The main and mischiet to a prince, than to put the opinion great one is this: a plot and practice, to alter of deity into his ears? for, if from his cars it and subvert the frame and fabrick of this estate should pass to his heart, it might be mortal : and common-wealth. This is the great one, you know how Herod perished. Now this and it hath others in it that give it more weight. inan gives a participation of divine omnipoTo this end, 1. He labours to infuse into the tence to kings; and though a part may seem conscience of his maj. the persuasion of a to qualify, yet all doth seem again to fill up power not bounding itself with laws, which that qualification; and very dangerously, if we king James of famous memory, calls, in his remember what God saith of himself, I am speech to the parliament, tyranny, yea, tyranny a jealous God.' 2. He goes about to destroy accompanied with perjury. 2. He endeavours the kingdom and commonwealth by bis divito persuade the conscience of the subjects, that nity; but do we ever find in scripture such a they are bound to obey commands illegal; yea destroying divinity? Surely I find there, That

God is a God of order, and not of confusion,' * From sir John Napier's MS, And that the Son of God caine to save, and not to destroy. By which it seems he bath Grievances, both general and particular, as if not his divinity from God, nor from the son they had never before been mentioned. There of God: but, from the scriptures, I find there is only a short abstract of it in the Collections, is one in hell called the Destroyer.' And that but the following copy of it at large, is taken we may know he went to hell for his divinity, from sir John Napier's M.S. he names sundry jesuits and friars, with whom Sir J. Elliot recapitulates all their Grievanhe consulted and traded for his divinity. But, ces.7 Sir John Elliot rose and said Mr. not to bely even hell itself, the jesuits are Speaker, We sit here as the great council of honester than he; for if he had not brought the king; and in that capacity it is our duty to more hell unto them than he found in them, take into consideration the state and affairs of he had never found this divinity which he hath the kingdom; and where there is occasion, to brought forth; yea, in his quotations he hath give them a true representation by way of used those shifts and falshoods, for which boys counsel and advice, with what we couceive neare whipt in schools, and yet by them he thinks cessary or expedient for them. In this conto carry the cause of a kingdom.-But, for a sideration, I confess, many a sad thought hath conclusion, to give the true character of this affrighted me; and that not only in respect of man, whom I never saw, I will shew it you our dangers from abroad, which yet I know by one whom I know to be contrary to him: are great, as they have been often in this place Samuel we know all to be a true prophet; now prest and dilated to us, but in respect of our we read of Samuel, That' he writ the law of disorders here at home, which do inforce those the kingdom in a book, and laid it up before dangers, and by which they are occasioned: the Lord.'. And this he did, as one of Mr. for, I believe, I shall make it clear unto you, Manwaring's own authors affirms, that the king that both, at first, the cause of these dangers may know what to command, and the people were our disorders, and our disorders now are what to obey: but Mr. Manwaring, finding yet our greatest dangers; and not so much the the law of this kingdom written in books, tears potency of our enemies, as the weakness of it in pieces, and that in the presence of the ourselves do threaten us; and that saying of Lord in a pulpit; that the king may not know the father may be assumed by us ; Non tam what to command, nor the people what to potentia sua quam negligentia nostra.' Our obey. Thus Mr. Manwaring, being contrary want of true devotion to heaven, our insinceto a true prophet, must needs be a false one; rity and doubling in religion, our want of counand the judgment of a false prophet belongs to cils, our precipitate actions, the insufficiency him. I have shewed you an evil tree, that or unfaithfulness of our generals abroad, the bringeth forth evil fruit; and now it rests with ignorance or corruptions of our ministers at you to determine, whether the following sen | home, the impoverishing of the sovereign, the tence shall follow, Cut it down, and cast it oppression and depression of the subject, the into the fire."

exhausting of our treasures, the waste of our Sanderson, in his life of Charles I. informs provisions, consumption of our ships, destrucus, That this Dr. Manwaring preached two tion of our men. These make the advantage bold sermons, one before the king, and the to our enemies, not the reputation of their other at his parish church. In the first he arms. And if in these there be not rcformaasserted; “ That the king's royal command, tion, we need no foes abroad; time itself will imposing tases and loans, without consent of ruin us.'_To show this more fully, I believe, parliament, did so far bind the conscience of you will all hold it necessary, that they seem the subjects of this kingdom, that they could not an aspersion on the state, or imputation not refuse the payment without peril of dam- on the government, as I have known such monation." The other was on this topic, “ That tions misinterpreted; but far is this from me the authority of parliament was not necessary to propose, who have none but clear thoughts for the raising Aids and Subsidies." This au-l of the excellency of the king, nor can have thor adds, he well remembers what the king other ends but the advancement of his majessaid when he was afterwards censured for it; ty's glory : I shall desire a little of your patience «He that will preach more than he can prove, extraordinary to open the particulars; which let him suffer for it; I give him no thanks for I shall do with what brevity I may, answergiving ine iny due.' So that this being entirely able to the importance of the cause and the the business of parliament, he was left, both necessity now upon us; yet with such respect by the king and church, to their sentence; and observation to the time, as I hope it shall which will follow in the sequel.

not be thought troublesome. For the first The King's Answer to the Pelition of Right, then, vur insincerity and doubling in Religion not agreeable to the Commons. ] Mr. Rush is the greatest and most dangerous disorder of worth tells us, That on the 3d of June the all others; this hath never been uppunished, King's Answer to the Petition of Right was and of this we have many strong examples of read in the cominons, and seemed too scant, all states, and in all times, to awe us. What in regard to so much expence of time and testimony doth it want? Will you have autholabour, as had been emploved in contriving rity of books? Look on the collections of the it : and, that thereupon, sir John Elliott stood committee for Religion, there is too clear an up, and made a long speech, wherein he gave evidence. See then the commission procureu forth so full and lively a representation of all for composition with the Papists in the North

mark the proceedings thereupon; and you will the Low-Countries, and by that means receive find them to little less amounting than a tole- their ships and help thein by sea. This treble ration in effect: the slight payments and the cord, so working between France, the States, easiness in them, will likewise shew the favour and England, might enable us, as occasion that is intended. Will you have proofs of should require, to give assistance unto others; men, witness the hopes, witness the presuinp- and, by this means, the experience of that tions, witness the reports of all the Papists time doth tell us that we were not only free generally: observe the dispositions of com- from those fears that now possess and trouble manders, the trust of officers, the confidence us, but then our names were fearful to our in secretaries to einployments in this kingdom, enemies. See now what correspondency our in Ireland, and elsewhere : these all will shew actions had with this; square them by these it hath too great a certainty ; and to this add rules. It did induce, as a necessary consebut the incontrovertible evidence of that all- quence, a division in France between the propowerful Hand, wbich we have felt so sorely testants and their king, of which there is too that gave it full assurance; for as the heavens woful and lamentable experience. It hath oppose themselves to us for our impiety, so made an absolute breach between that state it is we that first opposed the heavens.'--For and us; and so entertains us against France, the second, our Want of Councils, that great and France in preparation against 'is, that we disorder in a state, with which there cannot have nothing to promise to our neighbours, be stability. If effects may shew their causes, nay hardly to ourselves. Nay, observe the as they are often a perfect demonstration of time, in which it was attempted, and you shall them, our misfortunes, our disasters serve to find it not only varying from those principles, but prove it; and the consequences they draw directly contrary and opposite ex diametro to with them. If reason be allowed in this dark those ends; and such, as from the issue and age, the judgment of dependencies and fore- success, rather might be thought a conception sight of contingencies in affairs do confirin it. of Spain, than begotten here with us." (llere For if we view ourselves at home, are we in there was an interruption made by sir H. May strength, are we in reputation equal to our chancellor of the duchy, and one of the privyancestors? If we view ourselves abroad, council, expressing a dislike, but the house or are our friends as many; are our enemies no dered sir John to go on: whereupon le promore? Do our friends retain their safety ceeded thus:] “ Mr. Speaker, I am sorry for and possessions? Do not our enemies en- , this interruption, but much more sorry if there large themselves, and gain from them and hath been occasion; wherein, as I shall subus! To what counsel owe we the loss of mit myself wholly to your judgment to receive of the Palatinate, where we sacrificed both what censure you should give me, if I have our honour, and our men sent thither; stop-offended : so, in the integrity of my intentions ping those greater powers appointed for that and clearness of my thoughts, I must still retain service, by which it might have been defensi- this confidence, that no greatness shall deter ble. What counsel gave direction to the late me from the duties wbich I owe to the ser. action, whose wounds are yet bleeding, Ivice of my king and country; but that with a mean the expedition to Rhee, of which there true English heart, I shall discharge myself as is yet so sad a memory in all men? What de- faithfully and as really, to the extent of my Sign for us, or advantage to our state could poor power, as any man, whose honours, or that import? You know the wisdom of our an- whose offices, most strictly oblige bin.---You cestors, and the practice of their times, how know the dangers Denmark is in, and bow they preserved their safeties. We all know, much they concerned us; what in respect of and have as much cause to doubt as they had, our alliance and the country; what in the imthe greatness and ambition of that kingdom, portance of the Sound; what an advantage to which the whole world could not satisfy. our enemies the gain thereof would be? What Against this greatness and ambition, we like | loss, what prejudice to us by this disunion ; we wise know the proceedings of that excellent breaking upon France, France enraged by us, queen, Elizabeth ; whose name, without admi and the Netherlands at amazement between ration, falls not into mention even with her both? Neither could we intend to aid that enemies. You know how she advanced her luckless king, whose loss is our disaster? Can self, and how she advanced this nation in glo- those now, that express their troubles at the ry and in state; how she depressed her ene- hearing of these things, and have so otien told mies, and upheld her friends; how she enjoyed us, in this place of their knowledge in the cona full security, and made them then our scorn, junctures and disjunctures of attairs, say, they whoin now are made our terror! Some of the advised in this? Was this an act of council, principles she built on were these; and, it I Mr. Speaker? I have more charity than to mistake, let reasou and our statesmen contra-think it; and, unless they make a confession dict me. 1st. To maintain, in what she might, of themselves I can not believe it.--For the an unity in France, that that kingdom, being next the Insufficiency and Unfaithfulness of at peace within itself, might be a bulwark to our Generals, (that great disorder abroad,) keep back the power of Spain by land.' Next what shall I say? I wish there were not cause to preserve an amity and league between that to mention it; and, but out of the apprehenstate and us, that so we might come in aid of sion of the danger that is to conne, it the like choice hereafter be not prevented, I could | where can you miss of instances ? If you surwillingly be silent: but my duty to my sove- vey the court, if you survey the country; if the reign, my service to this house, and the safety church, if the city be examined ; if you observe and honour of my country, are above all res- the bar, if the bench; if the ports, if the shippects : and what, so nearly, trenches to the ping; if the land, if the seas : all these will p.ejudice of this, must not, shall not, be for- render you variety of proofs, and that, in such born. At Cadiz then, in that first expedition measure and proportion, as shews the greatness we made, when we arrived and found a con of our disease to be such, that, if there be not quest ready, the Spanish ships I mean fit for some speedy application for remedy, our case the satisfaction of a voyage; and of which is almost desperate.--Mr. Speaker, I fear I some of the chiefest, then there themselves, have been too long in these particulars that have since assured me that the satisfaction are past, and am unwilling to offend you; therewould have been sufficient, either in point fore in the rest I shall be shorter: and in that of honour, or iu point of profit: why was which concerns the impoverishing of the king, it neglected? Why was it not atchieved, it no other arguments will I use, than such as all being of all hands granted, how feisable men grant. The Exchequer, you know, is it was? After, when with the destruction empty, and the reputation thereof gone; the of some of our men, and with the exposi anticnt lands are sold ; the jewels pawned; tion of some others, (who though their for the plate engaged; the debts still great; almost tune since have not been such,) by chance all charges, both ordinary and extraordinary, came off: when, I say, with the loss of our borne up by projects what poverty can be serviceable men, that unserviceable fort was greater? what necessity so great? what perfect gained, and the whole army landed; why was English heart is not almost dissolved into sor

nere nothing done? why was there nothing row for this truth? -For the Oppression of the attempted? If nothing was intended, whiere Subject, it needs no denionstration; the whole fore did they land? If there was a service, kingdom is a proof; and for the exhausting of wherefore were they ship'd again?-Mr. Speak- our treasures, that very oppression speaks it. er, it satisfies me too much in this, when I What waste of our provisions, what consumpthink of their dry and hungry march into that tion of our ships, what destruction of our men · drunken quarter, (for so the soldiers termed have been; witness that Journey to Algiers

it,) where was the period of their journey; witness that with Mansfield-witness that to that divers of our men, being left as a sacra- Cadiz-witness the next-witness that to Rhee fice to the enemy, that labour was at an end. --witness the last. (I pray God we may never -For the next undertaking, at Rhée, I will have more such witnesses.) Witness likewise not trouble you much; only this in short : was the Palatinate—witness Denmark-witness the not that whole action carried against the Turks-witness the Dunkirkers-witness all. judgment, and opinion of those officers, that what losses we have sustained, how we are were of the council? Was not the first; was impaired in munition, in ships, in men! It is not the last, was not all, in the landing, in beyond contradiction, that we were never so the intrenching, in the continuance there, in much weakened, nor ever had less hope how the assault, in the retreat, without their as- to be restored. These, Mr. Speaker, are our sent? Did any advice take place of such as dangers; these are they which do threaten us; were of the council? If there should be made a and these are like the Trojan horse brought in particular inquisition thereof, these things will cunningly to surprize us : in these do lurk the be manifest, and more. I will not instance the strongest of our enemies, ready to issue on us; Manifesto that was inade for the reason of these and if we do not speedily expel them, these are arms; por by whom, nor in what manner, nor the signs, these the invitations to others: these on what grounds it was published; nor what ef- will so prepare their entrance, that we shall fects it bath wrought, drawing, as it were, almost have no means left of refuge or defence : for it the whole world into league against us: nor we have these enemies at home, how can we will I mention the leaving of the Wines, the strive with those that are abroad? If we be free leaving of the Salt which were in our possession; from these, no other can impeach us? Our ali and of a value, as 'tis said, to answer much of tient English virtue, like the old Spartan valour, our expence; nor that great wonder which noclcared from these disorders ; our being in Alexander or Cæsar ever did, the inriching of sincerity of religion and once made friends with the enemy by courtesies when our soldiers heaven; having maturity of councils, sufficiency wanted help: nor the private intercourses and of generals, incorruption of officers, opulency parlies with the Fort, which continually were in the king, liberty in the people, repletion in held: what they intended may be read in the treasure, plenty of provisions, reparation of success, and upon due examination thereof ships, preservation of men : our antient English they would not want their proofs.-For the virtue, I say, thus rectified, will secure us; and, last Voyage to Rochelle, there needs no obser- unless there be a speedy reformation in these, vations; it is so fresh in memory: nor will I | I know not what hopes or expectations we can make an inference or corollary on all. Your have. These are the things, sir, I shall desire own knowledge shall judge what truth, or what to have taken into consideration, that as we sufficiency they express. For the next, the are the great council of the kingdom, and have Ignorance and Corruption of our Ministers, the apprehension of these dangers, we may truly represent them unto the king; whereto, In the first year of the king, and the second I conceive, we are bound by a treble obligation, convention, I first moved for the increase and of duty to God, of duty to his majesty, and of inlargement of poor Ministers Livings: I shewduty to our country.--And therefore I wish it ed how necessary it was, though it bad been may so stand with the wisdom and judgment neglected; this was also commended to the of the house, that they may be drawn into the house by his maj. There being then, as now, body of a Remonstrance, and in all humility many accusations on foot against scandalous expressed ; with a prayer unto his maj. That, ministers, I was bold to tell the house, that for the safety of himself, for the safety of the there were also scandalous livings, which were kingdom, and for the safety of religion, he will much the cause of the other ; livings of five be pleased to give us time to make perfect pounds, nay even five marks a year; that men inquisition thereof, or to take them into his of worth and parts would not be inúzzled up to own wisdom, and there give them such timely such pittances; that there were some such reformation as the necessity and justice of places in England, as were scarce in all Christhe case doth import. And thus, sir, with a tendom beside, where God was little better arge affection and loyalty to his maj. and known than amongst the Indians. I exampled with a firm duty and service to my country, I it in the utmost skirts of the North, where the bave suddenly, and it may be with some disor- prayers of the common people are more like der, expressed the weak apprehensions I have; spells and charms than devotions; the same wherein, if I have erred, I humbly crave your blindness and ignorance is in divers parts of pardon, and so submit myself to the censure Wales, which many in that country do both of the house."

know and lament, I also declared, that to plant Rushworth observes, " That many of the good ministers was the strongest and sure:t members thought it not suitable to the wisdom means to establish crue religion; that it would of the house, in that conjuncture, to begin to prevail more against Papistry, than the making recapitulate those misfortunes which were now of new laws, or executing of old ; that it would obvious to all; accounting it more discretion not counter-work court-connivance and luke-warm to look back but forward ; and, since the king accommodation; that though the calling of miwas so ncar to meet them, that the happiness nisters be never so glorious within, the outward they expected inight not be lost : and these poverty will bring contempt upon them; espcwere for petitioning his maj. for a fuller An- cially among those, who measure them by the swer. It was intimated by sir Hen. Martin, ounce, and weigh them by the pound; which in* That this speech of sir J. Elliot was suggested deed is the greatest part ofmen. Mr. Pym, I canfrom disaffection to his majesty.' And there not but testify how, being in Germany, I was wanted not some who said, “It was made out exceedingly scandalized to see the poor stipenof dislike to his majesty's Answer to their Peti diary ministers of the reformed churches there, tion : but sir J. Elliot protested the contrary ; despised and neglected by reason of their poand that himself and others had a resolution to verty, being otherwise very grave and learned open these last mentioned Grievances, to satisfy men. I am afraid this is a part of the burthen of his maj. therein, only they stajd for an oppor- Germany, which ought to be a warning to us. tunity : which averment of sir J. Elliot was I have heard many objections and difficulties, attested by sir Tho. Wentworth and sir Rob. even to impossibilities against this bill. To hiin Philips.-In this debate sir Edw, Coke pro- that is unwilling to go, there is ever a bear or a pounded, “That an humble Remonstrance be lion in the way. First let us make ourselves wilpresented to his maj. touching the present ling, then will the way be easy and safe enough. dangers, and the means of safety both for the I have observed, that we are always very eager king and kingdom; which was agreed to by and fierce against papistry, against scandalous the house ; and thereupon the committee for ministers, and against things which are not so the bill of Subsidies was ordered to expedite the much in our power. I should be glad to see said remonstrance.'-In all, or most of these that we did delight as well in rewarding as in debates, the serjeant was ordered to attend on punishing, and in undertaking matters within the outside of the door of the house, and no our reach, as this is absolutely within our man was to offer to go out, upon penalty of power: our own duties are next us, other men's being sent to the Tower.

| further off. I do not speak this, that I do misSir B. Rudyard's Speech for better Mainte- I like the destroying and pulling down of that nance of the inferior Clergy.7 About this time which is ill; but then let us be as earnest to a committee, of which Mr. Pym was chairman, plant and build up that which is good in the being appointed to consider of a bill for the room of it; for why should we be desolate ? the better maintenance of the inferior Clergy, best and the greatest way to dispel darkness

Sir Benj. Rudyard made the following and the deeds thereof, is to let in light: we speech :*_" Mr. Pym; I did not think to have say that day breaks, but no man can ever hear spoken to this bill, because I was willing to be the noise of it; God comes in the still voice : lieve that the forwardness of this committee let us quickly mend our candlesticks, and we would have prevented me; but now I hold cannot want lights. I am afraid this backmyself bound to speak, and to speak in earnest. wardness of ours will give the adversary occa

ision to say, that we chuse our religion because * From the ' Ephemeris Parliamentaria.' it is the cheaper of the two, and that we would Vol. II.

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