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in the coast at the southerly end of the flat plain that extends northwestward to Kawaihae Bay. The bay affords good anchorage except during kona weather. The landing is on the northerly side of the bay alongside a wharf with a shed on it. Kailua village is situated along the shore of the bay and next to Hilo is the most important town on the island. Provisions and water can be obtained in limited quantities, as well as gasoline and some ship chandlery. A prominent Church with red roof surmounted by a tower with red steeple stands about 100 yards from shore in the northerly part of the town. The local steamer makes regular calls here, the principal exports being sugar, coffee, and cattle.

APPROACHING FROM SEAWARD, steer for Mount Hualalai on a 66° true (NE by E mag.) course; the town will be ahead and will be recognized by the red roofs on the houses which stand out conspicuously against the green background. When off the entrance to the bay head for the church described in the preceding paragraph on a 330 (NNE mag.) course and anchor in 10 fathoms, sandy bottom.

Keahole Point, 7 miles northwestward of Kailua Bay, is the westernmost point of Hawaii. It is marked by Keahole light (group flashing white). The point is prominent, low, and well defined and consists of black lava. A shoal makes off the point for about 14 mile.

Mount Waawaa, 5 miles northward of Mount Hualalai, is prominent, about 3,800 feet high, and can often be seen when Mount Hualalai is hidden by the clouds. It is dome-shaped, with deep gorges in its sides, and rises about 500 feet above the slope on which it stands.

Kuili Hill, 5 miles northward of Keahole Point and. 14 mile inland is a brown crater, 346 feet high, which marks the seaward end of a series of blowholes that are on the ridge on the northwesterly slope of Mount Hualalai. Between Keahole Point and Kawaihae Bay there are several small bays, which are not used.

The coast between Kailua Bay and Kawaihae Bay is a black jagged mass of lava, with numerous capes and indentations made up by numerous lava flows over the level country. The lava flow of 1859, which reaches the sea south of Kawaihae Bay, marks the northern limits of the lava flows. Between Keahole Point and Upolu Point the trade winds draw over the mountains, at times causing a very strong offshore wind. Vessels that anchor in this vicinity should be prepared to use both anchors.

Mahiula, about 4 miles north of Keahole Point, is on an unimportant bay off which there is reported shoal water for a distance of 1 mile. There is another extensive shoal extending 42 mile offshore about 4 miles northeast from Mahiula.

Puako, 20 miles northeast from Keahole Point, is an abandoned sugar mill and buildings. There is a large flat area formerly under cultivation; but lack of water proved a detriment.

Kawaihae Bay, 22 miles northeastward of Keahole Point, is an open bight and is marked on its northerly side by Kawaihae (flashing white) Light. The bay affords good anchorage for vessels of any size, except during kona weather, about 38 mile offshore, in 7 to 8 fathoms, with Kawaihae Light bearing anything eastward of 66° true (NE by E mag.). A reef about 12 mile wide and bare in places fringes the beach in front of the village, and it should be approached with caution, as the sea generally does not break over it during offshore winds. The landing is alongside of a wharf with an open shed on it in front of the village. The latter consists of a few houses scattered along the beach about 14 mile southward of the light. Small boats anchor behind the reef just off the village.

PROMINENT FEATURES. --About 200 yards eastward of the light is a gray, one-story keeper's dwelling, with red roof. Between the light and dwelling is a white stone beacon and a wireless-telegraph mast. About Y2 mile northward of the village is the mouth of a deep gulch that divides into two branches near its head. The mouth of the gulch is thickly wooded, and 100 yards southeastward is a conspicuous white rock at the southeasterly edge of a dark bluff. About 4 mile southward of the village is the foundation of the ancient temple of Kamehameha. It is a square of dark rock located on a low mound near the beach and is visible from the anchorage.

APPROACHING KAWAIHAE BAY FROM NORTHWARD, when within 2 miles of the beach head for Kawaihae Light on a 89o true (E by N mag.) course and select anchorage as described in a preceding paragraph.

APPROACHING FROM SOUTHWARD, head for the mouth of the deep gorge 72 mile northward of the village on a 55° true (NE mag.) course until Kawaihae Light bears 89o true (E by N mag.). The local steamer makes regular calls here. This is a great shipping port for live stock.

Mahukona Anchorage is an open bight 10 miles northward of Kawaihae Bay and is marked on its southerly side by Mahukona Light. On account of the fresh offshore winds in this vicinity vessels should anchor with plenty of chain and have a second anchor ready to let go. A current generally sets northward past the anchorage. The landing is in front of the village, alongside of a wharf with a house on it. There are several mooring buoys off the landing in 7 to 10 fathoms. Mahukona consists of a few houses located in an algaroba grove near the beach and is the terminus of a plantation railroad that goes around the northerly end of the island as far as Akokoa Point, affording transportation for the Kohala sugar district.

Prominent features.-Mahukona range lights (fixed red), maintained by private parties, lead to the outer mooring buoys on a 77° true (ENE mag.) course. There are two conspicuous white conical towers, each 15 feet high, one on the southerly side of Makaohule Point and one about 400 yards southward of the boat landing between Mahukona Light and the beach. The oil tarfk and warehouses on the north side of the anchorage are prominent. There is a second derrick and landing on the north point close to the oil tank. This is used when more than one ship is in port or when the other landing is unsafe.

The local steamer calls regularly, as well as freighters.

ANCHORAGE can be found in 10 fathoms just northward of the outer mooring buoys, but in no case should vessels anchor southward of them, as the bottom is very foul. Vessels intending to moor to the buoys should use exceptionally strong lines and also be prepared to let both anchors go if necessary. An anchorage where the wind does not blow so strong can be found 12 mile northward of the landing and about 400 yards off the railroad embankment. The local pilot will moor vessels if desired.

SUPPLIES.—Provisions, coal, and water can be obtained in limited quantities.

Honoipu Anchorage, 4 miles northward of Mahukona, is an open bight. Anchorage can be found in 8 to 10 fathoms, with the seaward end of the wharf bearing 78° true (ENE mag.) and the cable house bearing 122° true (ESE mag.). This landing has been abandoned in favor of Mahukona. The coast between Mahukona and Upolu Point is a series of low, black bluffs, back of which the country is marked by numerous old blowholes and rises gently to the Kohala Mountains.:

Alenuihaha Channel lies between the islands of Hawaii and Maui and is 26 miles wide in its narrowest part between Upolu Point, Hawaii, and Kailio Point, Maui. It is free from obstructions and has bold water close to shore. During strong trade winds the channel is quite rough, and a current of from 1 to 2 knots sets westward; but during the calms that frequently follows there is at times an easterly set of about 1 knot, which during kona winds may reach a velocity of 2 or 3 knots. The channel is roughest and the current strongest when the wind is between north-northeast and east-northeast.


the second in size of the islands, lies 26 miles northwestward of Hawaii. It is about 42 miles long in a westerly direction and about 23 miles wide, and consists of two distinct mountain masses joined by a low flat isthmus. The extinct crater of Haleakala 10,032 feet high, is near the center of the eastern peninsula. On the northwesterly side of the crater the land slopes gently, while on the southerly and easterly sides it is much steeper and in some places percipitous. Koolau Gap on the northerly side and Kaupo Gap on the southeasterly side are two large openings in the side of the crater.

Mount Kukui, 5,788 feet high, is near the center of the western peninsula. This peninsula is cut up by rugged peaks and deep valleys and gulches, which open out in sloping plains that extend to the coast.

RIVERS.—There are numerous streams emptying into the sea, none of which are navigable except for small boats.

POPULATION.-By the census of 1920, Maui had 36,080 inhabitants.

Winds.—The trade winds divide at Kauiki Head, part following the trend of the coast northwesterly as far as the isthmus when it again divides, part of it drawing southward, often reaching great force in the vicinity of Maalaea Bay. Another part follows the trend of the coast around the northwesterly end of Maui and through Pailolo Channel; the wind blows with greater force on the Molokai side of the channel. From Kauiki Head the wind follows the trend of the south shore of Maui through Alalakeiki Channel around the northerly end of Kahoolawe, but is not felt on the westerly shore of that island. On the south coast of Maui a sea breeze sets in about 9 a. m. and continues until after sundown, when the land breeze then springs up. Light airs or calms are generally found in the vicinity of Molokini.

RAINFALL.—There is quite a heavy rainfall on the weather side, while on the lee side it is very light.

ANCHORAGES are numerous on the southwesterly side of Maui, the first requirement under ordinary conditions being shelter from the trade winds.

SUPPLIES.- Provisions, water, coal, fuel oil, and some ship chandler's stores can be obtained at Kahului. Some provisions can be obtained at other places.

REPAIRS.—There is a machine shop at Kahului where minor repairs can be made.

COMMUNICATION is frequent with Honolulu.

RAILROADS:-Railroads extend a short distance northeastward, southward, and northwestward from Kahului.

HIGHWAYS.—There are good highways in many parts of the island, and automobiles and carriages can be obtained at most of the towns.

TELEPHONE.—There is communication by telephone to all parts of the island and by wireless telegraph to the other islands.

CURRENTS.-Generally the currents set with the trades. A current follows the north shore of Maui westward from Kauiki Head and draws down through Pailolo Channel; the current is stronger on the Molokai side of the channel. A strong current follows the coast southward of Kauiki Head until past Kahoolawe. It is said that a slight current sets southeastward in Alalakeiki Channel. In the vicinity of Lahaina the current generally sets northwestward.

Hana Bay (Pueo kahi Bay) is situated at the easterly end of Maui Island and is marked on its southerly entrance point by a flashing white light. The bay is 38 mile in diameter and may be picked up from offshore by identifying Kauiki Head which marks the south side of the bay. There is a concrete wharf on the south side of the bay, with depths of 20 to 28 feet alongside. The local steamer makes regular calls here. Sugar is the principal export. Gasoline and provisions can be obtained here. The bay does not afford a desirable anchorage. Small vessels sometimes anchor in the southwest portion of the bay, but do not have much swinging room. They are exposed to northeast winds and sea, and during strong southwesterly blows the wind comes offshore in such heavy squalls that they are apt to drag anchor. In the absence of local knowledge this anchorage should not be attempted by any but small craft. A shoal extends almost halfway across the bay from the middle of the north shore. Except in calm weather it is marked by breakers. A more exposed anchorage for deeper draft vessels can be found in 9 to 10 fathoms about midway between Kauiki Head and Nanualele Point, with Outer Pinnacle Rock showing between Twin Rocks, bearing 151° true (SE 42 S mag.), and the sugar mill, bearing 2170 true (SSW 38 W mag.).

Nanualele Point is the low, flat, lava point on the north side of Hana Bay.

Haula Čone, 540 feet high, is the highest of a group of five hills lying 42 mile westward of the landing. The sugar mill and plantation buildings 44 mile southwestward of the landing are conspicuous, in a large cane field.

Kauiki Head, the easternmost point of Maui, is an extinct crater, 392 feet high, the outer half of which has been eroded, leaving the inside of the crater exposed. It is dark brown in color, is joined to the mainland by a low neck of land, and from a distance appears as an island. Close to the northerly side of Kauiki Head is an islet on which is located Kauiki Head Light. Two black rocks and a rock awash lie near the northwesterly side of the islet.

Twin Rocks are two bare rocks with deep water close to, lying about 300 yards northeastward of Kauiki Head light; the inner rock is 20 feet and the outer rock 14 feet high.

Inner Pinnacle Rock, about 3 feet high, lies 200 yards southward of Outer Twin Rock.

Outer Pinnacle Rock, about 5 feet high, lies 300 yards southeastward of Outer Twin Rock. A shoal about 250 yards in diameter and with 4 to 6 feet over it lies northward of the channel and about 400 yards northwestward of Kauiki Head Light. The land near the coast is covered with cane for a distance of about 4 miles on each side of the mill. The coast between Kauiki Head and Nuu Anchorage consists of high, rough bluffs, broken up by numerous small capes and indentations, and is covered with vegetation as far as Kaupo Gap. The entire south face of Haleakala is steep and eroded and presents a reddish-brown appearance, dotted here and there with green patches. The slopes become less steep as the shore is approached.

Alau Island, 192 miles southward of Kauiki Head and 38 mile offshore, is about 100 yards in diameter and 150 feet high, and is grass covered. Between the island and the mainland there is an extensive reef. Two rocks, with about 6 feet over them, lie close together, about 4 mile southeastward of the island. Vessels should give the island a berth of about 142 miles in passing.

Iwiopele, about 1/2 miles south of Hana Bay, is a formation very much like Kauiki Head and resembles it in size and appearance.

okae Cove, almost 1 mile south of Iwiopele, affords a landing for small boats in northeast weather. About 3 miles southward of Alau Island there is a white church and dwelling standing on a bluff about 150 feet high. Landings may be made during northeast trade-wind weather in almost any of the coves south of Mokae Cove.

Wailua Cove, about 372 miles southwest from Mokae Cove, is at the mouth of a valley that is marked by a large white cross erected on a small hill a short distance up the valley. This cross is only visible over a small arc directly off the valley.

Kipahulu, 272 miles southwest from Wailua Cove, is a plantation town, marked by a mill with two stacks and two churches with spires situated about 12 mile apart. There are two landings on the shore below the town, but they are not used now, as all freight is transported to Hana by motor truck. Ahole Rock lies about 14 mile offshore. It is low, flat, and bare in appearance. There is a poor anchorage here, exposed to the swell. It is not recommended.

Kaapahu Bay, about 142 miles west of Kipahulu, is a slight indentation in the coast that sometimes can be used as an anchorage by small boats in trade-wind weather. Anchor in 4 fathoms about 200 yards off the pebble beach.

Kaupo Landing, about 12 miles west of Kaapahu Bay, is the best landing place in the vicinity during trade-wind weather. The local steamer visits this place at two-month intervals, handling general cargo.

Kailio Point, about 22 miles southwest of Kaupo Landing, is a narrow point about 75 feet high, marking the east end of Mamalu Bay. An anchorage can be found here in trade-wind weather about 300 yards offshore from the head of the bay, in 10 fathoms, sandy bottom.

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