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least depth in the channel was 35 feet. The channel is well marked by lights and buoys, and the harbor is easy of access for steamers both day and night. There are depths of between 20 and 35 feet alongside the principal wharves.
Honolulu is the capital of the islands. It is a city with all modern improvements, and in 1920, had 83,327 inhabitants. The city is located on the low plain that lies at the foot of the Koolau Range, about halfway between Makapuu Head and Barbers Point. There is a large foreign and coastwise trade here.
PROMINENT OBJECTS.-The most prominent object in Honolulu from offshore is the chimney on the Hawaiian electric plant, close to the east side of the harbor. It is 225 feet high. Honolulu Harbor lighthouse and the Quarantine station with a white flagpole are on the westerly side of the harbor. The crematory chimney is on the easterly side of the harbor. Punchbowl is a flat-topped, conical hill, about 500 feet high, lying immediately back of the city. Mount Tantalus, about 21⁄2 miles northeastward of Punchbowl, is a rounded peak about 2,000 feet high and is heavily wooded at its summit. Mount Konahuanui, about 2 miles northeastward of Mount Tantalus, is 3,105 feet high and is the summit of the Koolau Range. It consists of double peaks, which when seen from southward of Honolulu appear to be about the same height. Mount Lanihuli, about 11⁄2 miles west-northwestward of Mount Konahuanui, is dome-shaped, with a flat summit, and is 2,775 feet high. Mount Kaala, about 4 miles north-northeastward of Waianae, is a flat-topped peak, the highest of the Waianae Mountains, and is 4,030 feet high.
PILOTAGE is not compulsory, but vessels are required to pay half pilotage when a pilot is not taken, unless they have a coasting license. Pilots come out in small boats and meet vessels just outside the entrance. (See appendix for Pilot Rules and Regulations.)
TOWBOATS can be had. Regular rates have been adopted, but for towing vessels from outside the pilot limits an agreement is made between the vessel and the towboat.
ANCHORAGE.-Vessels sometimes anchor outside of the harbor on either side of the entrance in 8 to 13 fathoms, sandy or coral bottom. The shoaling is more gradual and the depths more moderate on the west side of the entrance. The water shoals rapidly toward the reef, and vessels should approach the desired depths with caution. This anchorage is exposed to all southerly winds.
HARBOR REGULATIONS are enforced by the harbor master. The harbor master should be informed ahead of time as to the date of a vessel's arrival, so that arrangements can be made for berthing and fueling.
QUARANTINE.-Vessels are boarded outside by surgeons of the Public Health Service at Honolulu, from whom full information can be obtained concerning quarantine and sanitary regulations.
MARINE HOSPITAL.-There is a commissioned officer of the Public Health Service at Honolulu, to whom application can be made for relief, the office being in the customhouse.
SUPPLIES.-Coal and fuel oil can be obtained. Water can be obtained alongside the wharves or from water boats. Provisions and ship chandlers' stores are to be had in the city.
REPAIRS.-There is a floating dry dock with a dead-weight capacity of 4,500 tons. There are machine shops and shipyards where extensive repairs can be made. Divers can be obtained.
TIME SERVICE.-Vessels can obtain chronometer comparisons and geographical information relative to the islands at the Government survey office. (See page 4 for time signals by radio.)
DIRECTIONS.-The harbor is easy of access for steamers, both day and night. The trades generally blow offshore, and sailing vessels have to tow in. The following directions lead in a least depth of about 35 feet:
From eastward, passing 11⁄2 miles or more south-southeastward and 1 mile or more south-southwestward of Diamond Head Lighthouse, steer for Mount Kaala, the highest peak of the Waianae Mountains, on a 309° 30' true (NW by W 3% W mag.) course for about 4 miles until off the entrance of the harbor. Then steer 2912° true (N by E 34 E mag.), with Honolulu Channel range lights ahead, and pass between the buoys and lights that mark the sides of the channel. When inside of Honolulu Harbor Lighthouse, haul northward, passing along the wharves.
From westward, passing 11⁄2 miles or more southward of Barbers Point, vessels can at night steer for Diamond Head Lighthouse on any bearing northward of 93° true (E 5% N mag.), or in the daytime steer on any bearing northward of 87° 30' true (ENE % E mag.) for Koko Crater. The distance from Barbers Point to the entrance is 13 miles, and either course will lead clear until off the entrance of the harbor. Then follow the directions in the preceding paragraph.
Between Honolulu and Barbers Point the coast is a low, white, sandy beach covered with trees. Just westward of Honolulu there is an extensive inlet, much of which is bare at low water. This entire stretch of coast is fringed by a coral reef over which the sea generally breaks. There are openings in the reef at Honolulu and Kalihi, but it is possible that landings might be made at other places in smooth weather. The country back of the coast is low and covered with sugar cane; several large mills can be seen, the most prominent of which is the one at Ewa. This mill is large and around it are grouped several small, white buildings.
Kalihi Entrance, about 11⁄2 miles westward of Honolulu, is a narrow channel through the reef, used only by boats and launches.
Barbers Point is a low, flat coral plain covered with algaroba trees and is marked by Barbers Point Lighthouse. The coast curves gradually and shows a white, sandy beach with here and there dark rocks. The land is level back to the foothills of the Waianae Mountains, which are about 3 miles from shore. The slopes of the hills are steep and partly covered with vegetation, the bare, red soil showing in places and giving them a noticeable reddish appearance. From Barbers Point to Kaena Point, a distance of about 191⁄2 miles, the southwest coast of Oahu has a general northwesterly trend. It is in most part bold, but there are a few outlying dangers, which will be avoided by giving the coast a berth of at least 111⁄2 miles. The coast consists of alternating ledges of rock and stretches of white sand beaches. The land near the coast is in most part high. Spurs extend to the coast from the Waianae Mountains, forming valleys. The valleys are heavily wooded, but the mountains are rocky and bare. There are no harbors or anchorages affording shelter in all winds. A shoal between 2 and 34 mile wide fringes the coast from Barbers Point to Kahe Point.
Kahe Point, 31⁄2 miles northwestward of Barbers Point, is the seaward end of a mountain spur.
Puuhulu Ridge, 311⁄2 miles northwestward of Kahe Point, is a narrow, rocky, barren ridge, 11⁄2 miles long, located at the southerly one of the two important projecting points of this coast, and is the most conspicuous landmark in this vicinity. The westerly end of the hill is close to the shore, has an elevation of 856 feet, and is precipitous on its seaward side.
Mailiilii Hill, about 2 miles northward of Puuhulu Hill, is a narrow, rocky ridge 729 feet high, standing near the shore and approximately at right angles with it.
Kaneilio Point is a small, low point on the southerly side of Pokai Bay.
Pokai Bay, about 1 mile northwestward of Mailiilii Hill, is a small indentation in the coast, on the shore of which the town of Waianae is located. Most of the town is hidden by the trees, but a mill stack is prominent from offshore. Waianae is on the railroad and there is practically no shipping by water. Landing can generally be made except during southerly winds. In entering Pokai Bay, vessels should head for the mill stack at Waianae on an 80° true (ENE % E mag.) course, and anchor about 1/2 mile offshore in 8 to 10 fathoms.
Waianae plantation occupies the deep valley which lies between Puuhulu Hill and Lahilahi Point. This valley extends back into the island about 4 miles and is the largest one on this side of the Waianae Mountains. The broken ridge which makes down to Mailiilii Hill divides the valley in two.
Lahilahi Point, 11⁄2 miles northwestward of Waianae, is a detached, steep ridge of dark rock 234 feet high, which forms a narrow point projecting about 4 mile.
Kepuhi Point, about 1% miles northwestward of Lahilahi Point, marks the seaward end of a bold, rocky, mountain spur, which comes to within a few hundred yards of shore. At the base of the bluff there is a low, narrow strip of thickly wooded land.
Makua village, 3 miles northward of Kepuhi Point, is at the head of the first bight below Kaena Point. The red church spire, beside which is a white house, shows well from seaward. Two or three other houses and a windmill or two can also be seen. Back of the village is a small crater-shaped valley. There is a sand beach at the head of the bay, where boats can land when there is little swell. Vessels can anchor within 4 mile of shore in 4 to 6 fathoms. Between Makua village and Kaena Point the coast is rocky, except for one short sand beach, and the mountains rise steeply from the beach.
Kaena Point, the westernmost point of Oahu, is a low, rocky point extending out a few hundreds yard from the foot of Kuaokala Ridge, and is marked by a flashing white light. There are two or three noticeable sand dunes on the point. Just off the end of the point are several low, jagged rocks, over which the sea washes, and the sea breaks offshore to a distance of about 4 mile.
Kuaokala Ridge is high and its seaward end breaks off rather abruptly. From Kaena Point to Kahuku Point, a distance of about 181⁄2 miles, the northwest coast of Oahu has a general easterly trend as far as Kaiaka Bay, and thence northeasterly to Kahuku Point. It is fringed with a reef for its entire distance, but all dangers will be avoided by giving the coast a berth of at least 1 mile. The coast consists of
alternating ledges of rock and stretches of white sand beaches. There are no harbors or anchorages affording shelter in all winds. About 61⁄2 miles eastward of Kaena Point and 1⁄2 mile off the village of Mokuleia there is a rock awash. The breaker or the rock itself is always visible.
Kaiaka Bay, 9 miles eastward of Kaena Point, is a small indentation in the coast.
Waialua Bay, 10 miles eastward of Kaena Point, is a small indentation at the bend near the middle of the northwest coast of Oahu. The bay is of no commercial importance. Its shores consist of low, black rock, with sand patches in the bights.
PROMINENT OBJECTS in the vicinity of Waialua are the church spire, the two flagstaffs on the Haleiwa Hotel, the roof only of which shows above the trees, and a large black chimney, with a mill beside it. There is a small islet on the northerly side of the bay, but it is not easily identified from offshore. About 1 mile northeastward of Waialua Bay and 3% mile inland is a pumping station with two large smokestacks. Back of the pumping station, on the brow of the hill, is a grove of trees and a plantation settlement. Between Waialua and Kahuku Point there is a narrow strip of low land along the coast, back of which is a table-land covered with vegetation, with steep grassy slopes facing the sea. These slopes are cut up in places by deep gorges.
Waimea Bay, 31⁄2 miles northeastward of Waialua Bay, is a small indentation in the coast at the mouth of a deep gorge which divides into two branches some distance up. The bay affords little shelter, and a landing can be made only in very smooth weather. It is of no commercial importance. When close in, a railroad bridge can be seen across the stream that flows down the gorge. There are several scattered buildings on the northerly side of the bay. The beach at the head of the bay is sandy, but on both sides of the entrance it consists of low, rocky ledges. Off the southerly entrance point are two ragged masses of black rock, with deep water close to on the offshore side. Near the northerly entrance point are some submerged rocks, which are generally marked by breakers. Vessels can stand in for the middle of the bay and anchor about 4 mile offshore in 9 to 10 fathoms, sandy bottom, with the mouth of the river bearing 101° true (E mag.). About 31⁄2 miles northeastward of Waimea Bay and 4 mile inland is the Waialee industrial school, a group of prominent buildings. About 14 miles northeastward of the Waialee industrial school and 1⁄2 mile inland is a prominent smokestack standing at the end of a high flume.
Kahuku Point, the northernmost point of Oahu, is low, covered with sand dunes partly covered with vegetation, and has a few scattered palms. The coast rounds gradually at this point, and there are a number of small black rocks close inshore. The land rises gently from the bluffs at the point to the mountains. Off this point the 10-fathom curve draws in to about 3 mile from shore, and in the daytime the breakers afford sufficient warning to guide clear of all dangers. At night, however, great care must be used, as it is difficult to locate the point on account of the low land and the absence of any aids to navigation. From Kahuku Point to Makapuu Head, a distance of about 31 miles, the northeast coast of Oahu has a general
southeasterly trend. It is fringed with coral reefs for nearly its entire distance. Between Kahuku Point and Kaneohe Bay the beach is for the most part low and sandy, with black rocks showing in places. There is a narrow strip of low, cultivated land between the beach and the foot of the mountains, which narrows as Kaneohe Bay is approached. A wagon road and railroad parallel the coast, and numerous villages can be seen from offshore.
PROMINENT OBJECTS along the coast are: A tall black stack about 1 mile southward of the extreme northerly end of the island; several wireless-telegraph poles near the beach, about 2 miles northwestward of Laie Bay; a large black stack about 3% mile southwestward of the wireless pole; the Mormon Church at Laie Bay; two church spires near the beach, about 1 mile apart and about 2 miles northwestward of Kahana Bay; and two schoolhouses, with flagpoles, standing close together near the beach, about 14 miles southeastward of Kahana Bay.
Laie Bay, 5 miles southeastward of Kahuku Point and 1 mile northwestward of Laie Point, is a narrow opening in the reef, with depths of 3 to 7 fathoms, where small craft with local knowledge can find shelter and make a landing. There are three small, low islets in this vicinity, the middle one being the largest. The entrance of the bay is near the south side of the middle islet on a 214° true (SSW W mag.) course for the Mormon Church (large and prominent, with cupola). Strangers should not attempt to enter without a pilot.
Laie Point is low, and has a rocky beach. Off its end are two small, flat, rocky islets.
Kahana Bay, 61⁄2 miles southeastward of Laie Bay, is a long. narrow opening in the reef lying at the mouth of a valley, where small craft with local knowledge can find shelter. Kahana village, partly hidden by the trees, is at the head of the bay. The breakers on both sides of the bay are the only guide for entering.
Kaneohe Bay, 4 miles southeastward of Kahana Bay and just northwestward of Mokapu Peninsula, is about 5 miles wide between Kualoa Point and Pyramid Rock and indents the coast about 2 miles. It is full of reefs and shoals with depths of 7 to 8 fathoms between. There is an entrance near the northwesterly end of the bay and one near the southeasterly end, and with local knowledge it is possible to take 10 feet through the former and 8 feet through the latter. In heavy trades the sea breaks across both entrances. Strangers should not attempt to enter without a pilot.
Pyramid Rock, the northwesterly point of Mokapu Peninsula, is black and has a sharp summit.
Mokapu Peninsula, about 19 miles southeastward of Kahuku Point and 10 miles northwestward of Makapuu Head, is a prominent landmark with a greatest elevation of 695 feet. Ulupau Head, at the northeasterly end of the peninsula, is a rocky headland, part of the rim of an old crater. Mokumanu Islands, lying 34 mile northward of the head, are two small islands, about 200 feet high, with vertical sides. The passage southward of the islands has a depth of about 5 fathoms in mid-channel, but it should not be used by strangers. Between Mokapu Peninsula and Makapuu Head the beach is for the most part