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IV. American naturalization.

1. Regulated by Congress. $ 381.

2. Committed to the courts. $382.

3. Persons capable of naturalization. $383.

4. Usual legal conditions. $384.

5. Declaration of intention.

(1) Usual requirement. $385.

(2) Exceptions. $386.

Immigration during minority.

Service in Army.

Service in Navy or Marine Corps.

Special case in Hawaii.

(3) Does not confer citizenship. $ 387.

Judicial decisions.

Executive action.

Cases of Italians.

6. Residence.

(1) Five years' rule. $ 388.

Meaning of "continued term."

(2) Exceptions. 389.

Seamen.

Service in Army.

V. Conventional arrangements.

1. Treaties with the German States.

(1) Negotiations. $ 390.

(2) Conditions of change of allegiance. $ 391.

(3) Question as to Alsace-Lorraine. $392.

(4) Practice of expulsion. $ 393.

(5) Operation of treaties. $ 394.

2. Belgium. $395.

3. Sweden and Norway. $ 396.

4. Great Britain. $397.

5. Austria-Hungary.

(1) Conditions of change of allegiance. $ 398.

(2) Practice of expulsion. $399.

6. Denmark; Ecuador. $ 400.

VI. Naturalization not retroactive.

1. General priciples. $401.

2. German treaties.

(1) Military cases.

§ 402.

(2) Statutes of limitation. $ 403.

3. Austro-Hungarian treaty. $ 404.

4. Belgian treaty. $ 405.

5. Danish treaty. $ 406.

6. Treaty with Sweden and Norway. $ 407.

VII. Nationality of married women.

1. Marriage of American women to aliens.

(1) Effect on status. $ 408.

(2) Reversion of nationality. $ 409.

2. Marriage of alien women to Americans.

(1) American law. $ 410.

(2) Reversion of nationality. $ 411.
3. Law in other countries. $ 412.

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VIII. Effect of parents' naturalization on infants.

1. American law. $ 413.

2. Marriage of alien widow to American. $ 414.

3. Adoption of children. $415.

IX. Naturalization internationally ineffective as to absent family.

1. Married women.

§ 416.

2. Infants. $ 417.

3. Good offices for emigration. $ 418.

X. Proofs of nationality.

1. Evidences of citizenship. $ 419.

2. Proof of naturalization.

(1) The judicial record. $ 420.

(2) Loss or destruction of record. $ 421.

Question of fact.

Practice of Department of State.

3. Impeachment of naturalization.

(1) Rules of municipal courts. $ 422.

(2) Rule of international action. § 423.

Repudiation of naturalization improperly obtained.

(3) Authority to make decision. $ 424.

(4) Disposition of fraudulent certificates. $ 425.

XI. Double allegiance.

1. Foreign-born children.

(1) Act of 1855. $ 426.

(2) Particular applications of principle. $427.

2. Native-born children.

(1) Double allegiance at birth. $ 428.

(2) Change of parents' nationality. $ 429.

3. Election at majority. $ 430.

XII. Question of expatriation.

1. Common-law doctrine. $ 431.

2. Judicial decisions.

(1) Prior to 1868. $ 432.

(2) Since 1868. $ 433.

3. Governmental doctrine.

(1) Executive declarations down to 1845. $ 434.

(2) Mr. Buchanan's assertion of unqualified right. $ 435.

(3) Reversion to earlier doctrine. $ 436.

(4) Reassertion of unqualified right, 1857-1861. § 437.

(5) Course during civil war. $ 438.

(6) Act of 1868. $ 439.

(7) Subsequent statements. $ 440.

4. Law of particular countries.

(1) China. $ 441.

(2) France. $ 442.

(3) Germany. § 443.

(4) Greece. $ 444.

(5) Guatemala. $ 445.

(6) Italy. § 446.

(7) Morocco. $ 447.

(8) The Netherlands. $448.

(9) Nicaragua. $ 449.

(10) Persia. $ 450.

III. CLAYTON-BULWER TREATY-Continued

7. Messages of President Hayes, $ 359.
8. Discussions of 1881-1883, § 360.
9. Frelinghuysen-Zavala convention, $ 361.
10. President Cleveland's message, 1885, S 362.
11. Executive utterances, 1889-1894, $ 363.
12. Mr. Olney's memorandum, 1896, S 364.
13. Recommendations by President McKinley, S 365.
14. Hay-Pauncefote treaty, 1901, $ 366.

Treaty of February 5, 1900.
Negotiation as to amendments.
Treaty of November 18, 1901.
Message of President Roosevelt.

Resolution of Second International American Conference.
15. Mosquito Question, since 1860, S 367.

Instructions of Mr. Fish, 1873.
Award of Emperor of Austria, 1881.
Mr. Bayard's representations.
Lord Salisbury's reply.
Mr. Foster's representations.

Insurrection of 1894, and subsequent events.
IV. AMERICAN ROUTES AND GRANTS, S 368.

The route by Panama.
V. SUEZ CANAL, $ 369.
VI. CORINTH CANAL, $ 370.
VII. KIEL CANAL, $ 371.

I. EARLY DECLARATIONS OF AMERICAN POLICY.

§ 336.

A cut or canal for purposes of navigation somewhere through the

isthmus that connects the two Americas, to unite the Instructions to del

Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, will form a proper subegates to Panject of consideration at the congress.

That vast ama Congress.

object, if it should be ever accomplished, will be interesting, in a greater or less degree, to all parts of the world. But to this continent will probably accrue the largest amount of benefit from its execution; and to Colombia, Mexico, the Central Republic, Peru, and the United States, more than to any other of the American nations. What is to redound to the advantage of all America should be effected by common means and united exertions, and should not be left to the separate and unassisted efforts of any one power. If the work should ever be executed so as to admit of the passage of sea vessels from ocean to ocean, the benefits of it ought not to be exclusively appropriated to any one nation, but should be extended to all parts of the globe upon the payment of a just compensation or reasonable tolls."

Mr. Clay, Sec. of State, to Messrs. Anderson and Sergeant, United States

representatives to the Panama Congress, May 8, 1826, Proceedings of

the Int. Am. Conference (1889-1890), IV. 113, 143. See, as to the neutralization of territory, supra, $ 178.

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