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Opinion of the Court.

to its acceptance by the latter, the patentee must be regarded as bound by the acts of his counsel ; and that, under the circumstances, the case fell clearly within Leggett v. Avery, 101 U. S. 256.

In Leggett v. Avery, thus referred to, Mr. Justice Bradley, speaking for the 'court, said: “We think it was a manifest error of the commissioner, in the reissue, to allow to the patentee a claim for an invention different from that which was described in the surrendered letters, and which he had thus expressly disclaimed. The pretence that an error had arisen by inadvertence, accident, or mistake,' within the meaning of the patent law, was too bald for consideration. The very question of the validity of these claims had just been considered and decided with the acquiescence and the express disclaimer of the patentee. If, in any case, where an applicant for letters patent, in order to obtain the issue thereof, disclaims a particular invention, or acquiesces in the rejection of a claim thereto, a reissue containing such claim is valid, (which we greatly doubt,) it certainly cannot be sustained in

The allowance of claims once formally abandoned by the applicant, in order to get his letters patent through, is the occasion of immense frauds against the public. It not unfrequently happens that, after an application has been carefully examined and compared with previous inventions, and after the claims which such an examination renders admissible have been settled with the acquiescence of the applicant, he, or his assignee, when that investigation is forgotten and perhaps new officers have been appointed, comes back to the Patent Office, and, under the pretence of inadvertence and mistake in the first specification, gets inserted into reissued letters all that had been previously rejected. In this manner, without an appeal, he gets the first decision of the office reversed, steals a march on the public, and on those who before opposed his pretensions, (if, indeed, the latter have not been silenced by purchase,) and procures a valuable monopoly to which he has not the slightest title. We have more than once expressed our disapprobation of this practice. As before remarked, we consider it extremely doubtful whether reissued

this case.

Opinion of the Court.

letters can be sustained in any case where they contain claims that have once been formally disclaimed by the patentee, or rejected with his acquiescence, and he has consented to such rejection in order to obtain his letters patent. Under such circumstances, the rejection of the claim can in no just sense be regarded as a matter of inadvertence or mistake. Even though it were such, the applicant should seem to be estopped from setting it up on an application for a reissue.” 101 U. S. 259, 260. See also Manufacturing Co. v. Ladd, 102 U. S. 408.

A reissue is an amendment, and cannot be allowed unless the imperfections in the original patent arose without fraud, and from inadvertence, accident or mistake. Rev. Stat. $ 4916. Hence the reissue cannot be permitted to enlarge the claims of the original patent by including matter once intentionally omitted. Acquiescence in the rejection of a claim; its withdrawal by amendment, either to save the application or to escape an interference; the acceptance of a patent containing limitations imposed by the Patent Office, which narrow the scope of the invention as at first described and claimed; are instances of such omission. Union Metallic Cartridge Co. v. United States Cartridge Co., 112 U. S. 624; Shepard v. Carrigan, 116 U. S. 593; Roemer v. Peddie, 132 U. S. 313; Yale Lock Co. v. Berkshire Bank, 135 U. S. 342, 379, and cases cited.

It is clear that the claim of this reissue is not covered by the original patent, and it appears that before the issue of the latter it was passed upon and rejected; was withdrawn and erased; an interference was dissolved upon condition of the amendment; and the issue of the original letters was predicated upon its abandonment. There is no room for the contention that there was any inadvertence, accident or mistake in the premises. Nor, in the light of these protracted proceedings in the Patent Office, can the applicant be permitted to treat the deliberate acts of his attorney as the result of inadvertence, accident or mistake. The repeated official decisions and orders, and the repeated efforts to maintain this claim without success, during this long struggle, indicate anything

Statement of the Case.

but negligence or inadvertence on the part of the solicitors employed. The decree of the Circuit Court was right, and it is




No. 40. Argued October 30, 1890. — Decided December 1, 1890.

In Utah an action under the statute (§ 3460 Compl. Laws Utah, 1888) to

foreclose a chattel mortgage, if commenced while the lien of the mortgage is good as against creditors and purchasers, keeps it alive, and continues it until the decree and sale perfect the plaintiff's rights, and pass

title to the purchaser. Under $ 3206 of the Compiled Laws of Utah, the rule of lis pendens applies

to an action to foreclose a mortgage of personal property. The enforcement of a mortgagee's rights under a chattel mortgage by a suit

for foreclosure is commended as affording a safer and more adequate remedy than is afforded by actual seizure and sale of the mortgaged property, or by an action of replevin, detinue or trover.

This case arose upon a complaint filed in the District Court of Weber County, Utah Territory, on the 22d of July, 1885, by James C. Armstrong, the appellee, against Mills H. Beardsley, to foreclose a mortgage of certain chattels, made January 14, 1885, by Beardsley to Armstrong, as security for the payment of his promissory note of that date to Armstrong, for the sum of $8000, payable in four months, with interest from date at one per cent per month, payable monthly from date until paid, both before and after judgment, until maturity; and, if not paid at maturity, ten per cent additional, as cost for collection; which mortgage was duly recorded, as provided by the laws of the Territory.

On the 22d of September, thereafter, Armstrong, with leave of the court, filed an amended complaint, making John Broom and E. A. Whitaker parties defendant, in which he alleged that the two defendants Broom and Whitaker, after the orig

Statement of the Case.

inal suit was instituted, had claimed an interest in the mortgaged chattels; that Broom's claim arose from his being a purchaser of the mortgaged property at a sale on August 13, 1885, under an execution issued upon a judgment dated March 18, 1885, against the defendant Beardsley, in favor of the Utah National Bank, for three thousand one hundred and sixty dollars ($3160); that the property having been levied upon by the United States marshal and sold, as above stated, was delivered by the marshal to Broom, as purchaser thereof, and put into his possession; that Whitaker's claim arose out of a mortgage upon the same property, made to him by Broom, August 22, 1885, to secure the payment of four thousand one hundred and thirty dollars, ($4130,) advanced by him to Broom; that this action on the original complaint had been pending from the date of the filing thereof to that time; that a notice of the pendency thereof was filed in the recorder's office of Weber County, on the 11th of August, 1885; and that the defendants had due notice and actual knowledge of all these facts and proceedings at the time the levy was made on the mortgaged property, and at the time Broom received and took possession of the same. Wherefore, in addition to his prayer for foreclosure against Beardsley, in the original complaint, he prayed that the two defendants Broom and Whitaker, and all persons claiming under them, subsequently to the execution of said chattel mortgage, be foreclosed of all right or claim or equity of redemption in the said property, and every part thereof.

The defendants Broom and Whitaker, and the defendant Beardsley also, filed their respective demurrers to the amended and supplemental complaint, as not stating facts sufficient to constitute à cause of action, both of which demurrers were overruled. Thereupon the defendants Broom and Whitaker filed their separate answer setting up, among other defences, the levy upon the property mortgaged, the purchase by Broom at the judicial sale thereof, and the invalidity of the lien of the chattel mortgage after the expiration of ninety days from the maturity of the note which it secured.

The case was submitted to the court on the pleadings and

Argument for Appellants.

proofs. A decree was rendered for the plaintiff in accordance with the prayer of the amended complaint, finding that Beardsley was liable for the principal and interest due on the note, with ten per cent additional for collection, etc., and that the said. amount was a valid lien upon the property described in the amended and supplemental complaint; and directing a sale of the mortgaged property to satisfy the same with costs, etc. The Supreme Court of the Territory affirmed the decree of the District Court, and that decree of affirmance was brought to this court for review by the present appeal.

Mr. Samuel Shellabarger, (with whom was Mr. Jeremiah M. Wilson on the brief,) for appellants.

1 Mr. Shellabarger's brief contained the following extracts from the Compiled Laws of Utah (1888) upon which he relied.

SEC. 2801. No mortgage of personal property shall be valid as against the rights and interests of any person, (other than parties thereto,) unless the possession of such personal property be delivered to, and retained by, the mortgagee, or unless the mortgage provide that the property may remain in the possession of the mortgagor, and be accompanied by an affidavit of the parties thereto, or, in case any party is absent, an affidavit of the parties present, and of the agent or attorney of such absent party, that the same is made in good faith to secure the amount named therein, and without any design to hinder or delay the creditors of the mortgagor.

SEC. 2802. Every mortgage of personal property shall be witnessed; acknowledged by the mortgagor, or person executing the same; and when the mortgage debt is satisfied shall be released by the mortgagee, in the same manner as is provided for mortgages of real property.

SEC. 2803. Every mortgage of personal property, together with the afdavit and acknowledgment thereto, shall, to constitute notice to third parties, be filed for record in the office of the recorder of the county where the mortgagor resides, or, in case he is a non-resident of this Territory, then in the respective offices of the recorders of each and every county where the personal property may be at the time of the execution of the mortgage; and each of said recorders shall, on receipt of such mortgage, endorse thereon the time of filing the same with him, and shall promptly record the same, together with said affidavit and acknowledgment, in a book to be kept in his office, properly indexed and specially provided for the record of chattel mortgages, and, when so recorded, deliver the same to the mortgagee.

SEC. 2805. Any mortgage of personal property, acknowledged and filed as hereinbefore provided, shall, thereupon, if made in good faith, be good and valid as against the creditors of the mortgagor and subsequent pur

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