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Opinion of the Court.

There was no decision by the Secretary on the appeals, and this suit was brought. The notice of dissatisfaction with the

The appraiser at large will be notified of the appeal, of the time fixed for reappraisement, and of the name of the merchant appraiser. The importer will be notified of the time and place, but uot of the name of the merchant selected to assist in the reappraisement. If the attendance of an appraiser at large be impracticable, the collector will select an additional merchant, qualified as aforesaid, for the performance of the service.

“ Art. 467. The notice of the appointment of the merchant appraiser will be in the following form:

“Form No. 104.

Appointment of Merchant Appraiser.

“ CUSTOM HOUSE, “ COLLECTOR'S OFFICE,

18“SIR: You are hereby appointed to appraise which has been entered at this port, the importer having requested a new appraisement thereof in accordance with the provisions of the several acts of Congress providing for and regulating the appraisement of imported merchandise, and you are requested to appear at at — o'clock on the — day of

18–, to appraise the said goods pursuant to law. “ Before entering upon the duty indicated in the above appointment you will please call at this office to take the requisite oath. Very respectfully,

Collector. " To

merchant.

“ Art. 468. The oath to be taken by the merchant appraiser will be in the following form:

« Form No. 105.

"Oath of Merchant Appraiser. “ I, the undersigned, appointed by the collector of to appraise imported per,--, from-, the importer having requested a new appraisement thereof in accordance with law, do hereby solemnly swear diligently and faithfully to examine and inspect said lot of — and truly to report, to the best of my knowledge and belief, the actual market value or wholesale price thereof at the period of the exportation of the same to the United States, in the principal markets of the country from which the same was imported into the United States, in conformity with the provisions of the several acts of Congress providing for and regulating the appraisement of impo merchandise.

“Sworn to and subscribed before me this

“ PORT OF day of --, 18

Collector.

Opinion of the Court.

first appraisement was dated March 22, 1886, and contained a request for a reappraisement. Mr. M'Creery was selected by

Samples, &c., to be Sent to Reappraisers. “ Art. 469. At the time fixed for reappraisement the collector will send to the appraiser at large and merchant appraiser the invoice or invoices of the merchandise to be examined and appraised. The storekeeper or other officer having charge will deliver to them the samples or packages ordered for examination, and they will proceed to examine and appraise in the manner pointed out by law. The iinporter or his agent will be allowed to be present and to offer such explanations and statements as may be pertinent to the case. The valuation having been determined, the appraisers will report the same to the collector."

Article 472 provides for a compensation of $5 a day to the merchant appraiser while so employed, to be paid by the party taking the appeal.

"Art. 474. Merchants' appraisements should not assume the nature of a judicial inquiry where judgment is rendered in accordance with the preponderance of testimony on either side, but should be conducted as an investigation hy experts, to ascertain whether the local appraiser has reported the true and proper market value of the merchandise in question. S. 2655. Application for copies of proceedings on reappraisements should be made to the general appraiser, who will exercise his discretion in regard to furnishing the same.

“ Art. 475. It shall be the duty of the appraisers of the United States, and every of them, and every person who shall act as such appraiser, or of the collector and naval officer, as the case may be, by all reasonable ways and means in his or their power, to ascertain, estimate, and appraise the true and actual market value and wholesale price, any invoice or affidavit thereto to the contrary notwithstanding, of the merchandise at the time of exportation and in the principal markets of the country whence the same has been imported into the United States, and the number of such yards, parcels, or quantities, and such actual market value or wholesale price of every of them, as the case may require."

“ Art. 479. The appraisers or the collector and naval officer, as the case may be, may call before them and examine upon oath any owner, importer, consignee, or other person touching any matter or thing which they may deem material in ascertaining the true market value or wholesale price of any merchandise imported, and require the production, on oath, to the collector or to any permanent appraiser, of any letters, accounts, or invoices in his possession relating to the same. All testimony in writing or depositions taken by virtue of this section shall be filed in the collector's office and preserved for future use or reference, to be transmitted to the Secretary of the Treasury when he shall require the same. R. S. 2922.”

"Art. 1407. In cases of appeal general appraisers shall pursue their inquiry into the question of the actual character and dutiable value of the goods under reëxamination in such manner as may they deem most condu

Opinion of the Court.

the collector to be the merchant appraiser, but the notice to him of his selection was not put in evidence. The oath signed

cive to a just and equitable determination of the question. It is expected that they will arrive at that conclusion from their own knowledge and judg. ments as experts, in substantially the same manner as in the case of original appraisements. See article 474. S. 2655."

“Art. 1409. As the examinations of appraisers are made the basis of the general classification of importations for the imposition and assessment of duty, it becomes necessary that appraisers shall closely inspect the articles ordered for appraisement, and where they retain doubts concerning the quality or denomination of articles they shall submit samples thereof, with their opinions, to collectors, for transmission, in case of disagreement, to the Secretary of the Treasury. R. S. 2949.

Art. 1410. Appraisers must rigidly exclude unauthorized persons from the rooms where goods are awaiting or are under examination for appraise. ment, and forbid their subordinates to hold communication with interested persons concerning the goods under appraisement. R. S. 2949.".

Art. 1416. Appraisers are, in cases of reappraisement, to give courteous and due attention to explanations and statements of importers, in person or by representative, relating to the subject matter under examination, but they are to limit the privilege so accorded to one person in each single case of reappraisement, to receive only statements of fact, to require all facts to be stated concisely and not argumentatively, and to pursue their inquiry into the question of the actual character and dutiable value of the goods under reëxamination in such manner as they deem most conducive to a just and equitable determination of the question. Merchant appraisers appointed in cases of appeal from the decisions of the customs appraisers. are also to be governed by this article."

From the instructions of June 9, 1885 : “ The law of reappraisement is precisely the same as that of original appraisement, and there is no authority or justification for the system, which it appears has grown up in your office, of treating a reappraisement as in the nature of a trial in a court of law, wherein the reappraising officers sit as judges and render decisions according to the preponderance of testimony adduced. The law provides that the merchant appraiser shall be familiar with the character and value of the goods in question, and it is presumed that the general appraiser will have or will acquire such expert knowledge of the goods he is to appraise as to enable him to intelligently perform his official duty with a due regard for the rights of all parties and independently of the testimony of interested witnesses. The functions of the reappraising board are the same as those of the original appraisers. They are themselves to appraise the goods and not to depend for their information upon the appraisement of so-called experts in the line of the goods in question. I am informed that it is the practice to hold reappraisements on certain days of the week, within the hours of twelve and three, and that, owing to the number of appeals pending,

Opinion of the Court.

by him and sworn to before a deputy collector, on the 8th of April, 1886, was put in evidence, and was in the following

two or more cases are often heard at the same time by different merchant appraisers, all acting in coujunction with the general appraiser; that importers and witnesses are permitted to throng the general appraiser's office, in whose presence the conclusions of the appraising board are often announced, and that, if such conclusions are not satisfactory to the importer, he is allowed to protest and reargue the case, with a view to a modification of the finding, in which he is often successful. It is plain that all this is a wide departure from the methods of reappraisement contemplated by the law and regulations, and must necessarily result in injury to the revenue and general demoralization among officials and importers. The local appraisers are expected to do their full duty in ascertaining, estimating, and appraising the true and actual market value or wholesale price of imported merchandise at the time of exportation, and in the principal markets of the country whence the same has been imported. When appeals are taken from the valuation so found, it is expected that the general appraiser and merchant appraiser selected to act with him will reappraise the merchandise in substantially the same manner as is pursued on original appraisement. Section 2922 of the Revised Statutes authorizes appraisers to call before them and examine under oath any owner, importer, consignee, or other person, touching anything which they may deem material in ascertaining the true market value or wholesale price of any merchandise imported. It is by this law that appraisers are authorized to summon witnesses, but there is no authority for the public examination of such witnesses, or their cross-examination by importers, or counsel employed by such importers. The appraising officers are entitled to all information obtainable concerning the foreign market value of goods under consideration, but such information is not public property. It is due to merchants and others called to give such information that their statements shall be taken in the presence of official persons only. It must often occur that persons in possession of facts which would be of value to the appraisers in determining market values are deterred from appearing or testifying, by the publicity given to reappraisement proceedings. Article 1416 of the Regulations enjoins appraisers to give courteous and due attention to the explanations and statements of importers, in person or by representative, relating to the subject matter under investigation, but they are to limit the privilege so accorded to one person in each single case of reappraisement, to receive only statements of fact, and to require all facts to be stated concisely and not argumentatively. This regulation has been so construed that attorneys-at-law and custom-house brokers have appeared and acted as representatives of the importer on reappraisement. Such a construction is erroneous. The representative of the importer in such cases should be his employé or salesman - some perbon belonging to his house familiar with the facts tonching the subject matter under consideration. There is no office here for the lawyer or cus

Opinion of the Court.

terms: “I, the undersigned, appointed by the collector of the district of New York to appraise a lot of manufactures of silk and cotton imported per steamship Main from Bremen, the importer having requested a new appraisement thereof in accordance with law, do hereby solemnly swear diligently and faithfully to examine and inspect said lot of manufactures of silk and cotton, and truly to report, to the best of my knowledge and belief, the actual market value or wholesale price thereof, at the period of the exportation of the same to the United States, in the principal markets of the country from which the same was imported into the United States, in conformity with the provisions of the several acts of Congress providing for and regulating the appraisement of imported merchandise. So help me God.” The plaintiffs were notified by the collector, on the 20th of April, 1886, to pay the additional duty. This was after the reappraisement, and the additional duty was paid, they having previously paid $10 for the merchant appraiser's compensation.

tom-house broker, and such persons, as well as all others not officially called before the appraisers, should be excluded. This Department expects that all appraising otficers, including the general appraisers, will coöperate in all proper measures for the suppression of undervaluations, and be just and uniform in the appraisement of imported merchandise, to the end that the tariff laws may be strictly enforced, and fair and honorable merchants pro-. tected from loss by the dishonest practices of unscrupulous importers.”

From the instructions of June 10, 1885: “Experts have been employed at sereral of the foreign consulates, for the purpose of enabling the consul to obtain and transmit to appraisers information as to cost of producing silks and other merchandise, so that these officers would have the means of ascertaining the cost or value of the materials composing such merchandise, together with the expense of manufacturing, preparing, and putting up such merchandise for shipment. .. The law (section 2902, Revised Statutes) makes it your duty to ascertain, estimate, and appraise the true and actual market value and wholesale price of the merchandise at the time of exportation, and in the principal markets of the country whence the same has been imported into the United States, and when it appears that such true and actual market value cannot be ascertained to your satisfaction, you are to ascertain the cost of production, pursuant to the ninth section of the act of 1883, referred to, and in no case to appraise the goods at less than the cost so ascertained. These statutes are plain, and the appraising officers must comply with and enforce them.”

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