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Statement of the Case.

captain, who sat in the cabin, when he heard the watch sing out, 'A steamer is coming into us,' told the man at the wheel to keep his course, and jumped on deck, and saw the steamer approaching on the port quarter. No change was made in the schooner's helm, and she continued her north-northeast course up to the very moment of collision.

"7. After the steamer had turned to go to the supposed cries of distress the captain took his position in front of the pilot-house. A seaman, Andrew Johnson, was on the lookout, standing right up forward as far as he could get; the second officer was on watch in the pilot-house; and the quartermaster was at the wheel. All of them heard the fog-horn of the schooner and immediately after saw the schooner appearing through the fog off on the starboard bow, about 500 feet away. The captain gave his orders to back full speed astern, and took his position at the stem of the steamer and called out to those on board the schooner, Port the helm.'

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"8. That, when a screw vessel like the Nacoochee is going through the water at the rate of six miles an hour, and the engines are reversed 'full speed astern,' porting the helm or starboarding the helm has no effect at all on the vessel while she is still going ahead. The Nacoochee had not attained backward motion when she struck the schooner.

"9. That, immediately before the collision, the two vessels did not sight each other through the fog at the same moment, but that the Nacoochee first sighted the Lizzie Thompson when the latter was about 500 feet distant and the Lizzie Thompson first sighted the Nacoochee when 400 to 500 feet distant.

"Conclusions of law: 1. That the steamship Nacoochee was in fault, contributing to this collision, for not going at moderate speed in a fog.

"2. That the schooner was in fault, and in this respect, namely, that she was sailing too short-handed in the fog, and was guilty of negligent navigation in having but one man forward charged with the double duties of a lookout and blowing the horn, and one man astern, who was a youth of 20 only, at the wheel, all the other fourteen men, including the captain, being below deck.

Argument for the Nacoochee.

"3. The decree of the District Court is affirmed, without costs of this court to either party."

The claimant of the steamer filed six exceptions to the refusal of the court to find certain facts as prayed by the claimant, such exceptions being based on the ground that the facts so requested to be found were proved by the evidence and not contradicted by any material evidence in the case, and that, therefore, the refusal of the court to find the same was an error of law, as a finding against the evidence. The claimant also excepted to the first conclusion of law and to certain findings of fact as being unsupported by any evidence; also to the refusal of the court to make four several conclusions of law, as prayed for- (1) that the steamer was not in fault as contributing to the collision; (2) that the schooner was in fault, because she was sailing at the rate of five miles an hour before the wind, with every sail set, in a dense fog; (3) that the schooner was guilty of negligent navigation, because, immediately before the collision, she did not port her helm in order to avoid immediate danger, when by so doing she could have escaped the collision, and that Rule 24 required her to depart from Rule 23 on the occasion, and that she was not justified in keeping her course up to the moment of collision; (4) that the libel should be dismissed, with costs of the District and Circuit Courts. There was a bill of exceptions, setting forth the foregoing exceptions, but none of the testimony is embodied in the transcript of the record.

A final decree was made by the Circuit Court, that the libellants recover one-half of the damages sustained by them, amounting to $5110.57, with interest from May 19, 1885, being $421.60, and their costs in the District Court, taxed at $256.65, amounting in all to $5788.82. As both parties had appealed, no costs of the Circuit Court were given to either of them. From the decree of the Circuit Court both parties have appealed to this court.

Mr. Nathan Bijur for the steamship Nacoochee.

I. There is one element in this case which must be borne in mind, and which colors all the facts and distinguishes it from

Argument for the Nacoochee.

all other cases of collision involving the question of speed, and that is that the Nacoochee turned about to save life, and was on a life-saving errand when the collision occurred. It was evident that she had not only the right to change her course, but it was her duty to do so when supposed cries of distress were heard. The Boston, 1 Sumner, 328, 335; The George Nicolaus, Newberry Adm. 449, 451; The Edwin Hawley, 41 Fed. Rep. 606.

The Nacoochee being on an errand to save life, and turned in the direction of the cries, was compelled to proceed expeditiously, and so had to maintain speed enough for that purpose. The 23d rule expressly provides that all rules must be construed in reference to any special circumstances which may render a departure from the other rules necessary; and in considering, therefore, whether the steamer was guilty of violating the rule which prescribes that vessels shall go at moderate speed in a fog, regard must be had to the fact that she was engaged in a service which required her to move as promptly as possible. As was said in The Leland, 19 Fed. Rep. 771: "What is a moderate and what is a dangerous rate of speed are, of course, to some extent comparative terms, depending upon the surrounding circumstances."

It is of course admitted that the fact that she was engaged in trying to save life would not authorize the steamer to forge ahead at full speed and discharge her from any obligation to observe due precautions to avoid vessels which might be in the neighborhood. But nothing of the kind appears in this case. On the contrary, it is expressly found by the court that she was going only at half speed, that she could be stopped within 800 feet, and that the strictest lookout was kept.

The court below cites, to support its view that there was no moderate speed in this case, the rule laid down in The Batavier, 40 Eng. Law and Eq. 9, 25, which has been quoted with approval by this court in the case of The Colorado, 91 U. S., on page 703. That rule says: "At whatever rate she (the steamer) was going, if going at such a rate as made it dangerous to any craft which she ought to have seen and might have seen, she had no right to go at that rate.”

Opinion of the Court.

We claim that that rule could only be invoked against us if it were shown that it was possible for us to have known that at our rate of speed other vessels could not be seen within the distance necessary to stop the ship. If the mere fact that a collision occurred because the steamer could not be stopped is evidence that the steamer was running at a speed which under the circumstances was not moderate, then the consequence would be that in every case of collision the steamer must be held to have contributed to the accident and to be liable for at least half the damages.

II. The schooner was at fault, in not keeping a sufficient lookout, and having a boy of only slight experience at the helm. Where there is a crew of sixteen persons, and fourteen, including the captain, are below, and although there is a fog, only one man is charged with the duty both of sweeping the horizon on all points of the compass and blowing the fog-horn, it certainly is strange to claim that when a collision occurs the steamer, which kept the best possible lookout, is at fault, and the schooner is not.

Mr. Wilhelmus Mynderse for the libellants.

MR. JUSTICE BLATCHFORD, after stating the case as above reported, delivered the opinion of the court.

It is contended for the steamer that she was not guilty of any neglect in going at the rate of speed found. Her full rate of speed was between thirteen and fourteen knots an hour. When she first overhauled the schooner her speed was between six and seven knots an hour, and she kept up the latter speed until she reversed her engines on suddenly sighting the schooner in the fog, about five hundred feet away. At the time this collision took place the rules of navigation found in section 4233 of the Revised Statutes were in force. By Rule 15, whenever there was a fog or thick weather, whether by day or night, a sail-vessel under way was required to sound a foghorn at intervals of not more than five minutes. By Rule 20, "If two vessels, one of which is a sail-vessel and the other a

VOL. CXXXVII-22

Opinion of the Court.

steam-vessel, are proceeding in such directions as to involve risk of collision, the steam-vessel shall keep out of the way of the sail-vessel." By Rule 21, "Every steam-vessel, when approaching another vessel, so as to involve risk of collision, shall slacken her speed, or, if necessary, stop and reverse; and every steam-vessel shall, when in a fog, go at a moderate speed." By Rule 23, "Where by Rules seventeen, nineteen, twenty, and twenty-two, one of two vessels shall keep out of the way, the other shall keep her course, subject to the qualifications of Rule twenty-four." By Rule 24, "In construing and obeying these rules, due regard must be had to all dangers of navigation, and to any special circumstances which may exist in any particular case rendering a departure from them necessary in order to avoid immediate danger."

It is urged on the part of the steamer, that, in determining the question whether her speed was a moderate one in the fog, it is to be considered that she supposed she was on a life-saving errand, and was hastening towards what she thought were cries of distress, which required her to move as promptly as possible. It is found as a fact that, when running at half speed, as she was, she would forge ahead 600 to 800 feet, after reversing her engines, before beginning to go backwards; and that she had not attained backward motion when she struck the schooner. This, it is contended, was a moderate speed. It is urged, that if the master of the steamer thought that the fog was of such a character that he could see a vessel at a distance of about 800 feet, and it turned out that the fog was more dense than he thought it to be, he committed merely an excusable error of judgment, and was not guilty of negligence. But we cannot regard these views as controlling. The steamer was bound to keep out of the way of the schooner, and the burden rests upon her to show a sufficient reason for not doing so. She must be held wholly responsible, unless she shows a fault on the part of the schooner which contributed to the collision, or that it was due to unavoidable accident. The latter is not shown, and it is shown that the steamer was not going at a moderate speed in the fog. It is found that the steamer first sighted the schooner when the latter was about

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