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Opinion of the Court.

tion. Ought the bank to be compelled to pay to the Gillespies such sum of money; and had a court of equity jurisdiction to entertain and render a decree in this suit? In respect to the first question, it may be premised that the Gillespies were the owners of certain cattle, which were consigned to the firm of Rappal, Sons & Co. for sale; that the proceeds of the sales made by the Rappals were deposited in the bank, — and it is for this money that the suit was brought. This general statement compels the equitable conclusion that, as the Gillespies owned the cattle, they ought to have the moneys received from their sale. The right of an owner of property is not limited to the property itself, but extends to everything which is its direct product or proceeds. But this outline does not present the questions involved in this case, and a more detailed statement of the facts is requisite. A. J. Gillespie and his two sons, Thomas E. Gillespie and Louis J. Gillespie, were citizens of Kansas City, Missouri, doing business there as A. J. Gillespie & Co. Frederick J. Rappal and his two sons, Lawrence L. Rappal and Frederick J. Rappal, Jr., were citizens of Illinois, engaged in the live stock commission business as partners under the firm-name of Rappal, Sons & Co., at the Union Stock Yards in Chicago. The Union Stock Yards National Bank was a bank organized under the laws of the United States, and also located at the Union Stock Yards in Chicago. The consignments were made in October, 1885. In the spring of that year, Frederick J. Rappal, Sr., went to Kansas City to work up business for his firm. On arriving there he formed a nominal partnership, at least, with William P. Bowen and Milton James, for the purpose of buying cattle and sending them to Chicago for sale. The partnership name was W. P. Bowen & Co. On behalf of this firm, the elder Rappal made a contract with the Gillespies, by which the latter were to advance the money for the purchase of cattle; to take charge of the forwarding of them, receiving in consideration therefor five dollars a car-load, afterwards changed to $2.50 a car-load; and in pursuance of this contract, Rappal selected and purchased the cattle in controversy, receiving from the vendors orders of which the following is a specimen :

Opinion of the Court.

“Kansas City, Mo., Oct. 3, '85. “Union Stock Yard & Transit Co., Chicago, Ill. :

“Please deliver to A. J. Gillespie & Co. four cars cattle, consigned from Shelby & Fulkeeson to us via C., B. & Q. R. R.

“MOUNTJOY, WHITE & Co. “Deliver above cattle to Rappal Sons.

“ A. J. GILLESPIE & CO." Endorsed on the back the following: “Rappal, Sons & Co."

The allegation of the bill is, that the Gillespies, complainants, were owners of these cattle; and the contention is, that the proof does not establish this allegation, but shows that the Gillespies were not owners, but simply loaners of money on the security of the cattle. In respect to this, the learned Circuit Judge ruled as follows: "I hold that the cattle belonged to the Gillespies, or that the Gillespies were entitled to control them so far as necessary to protect themselves for advancements made on the purchases.” This is a very accurate statement of the relations of the parties; and in equity the Gillespies may properly be considered the owners. They paid for the cattle; the orders for possession, equivalent to bills of sale, were in their name; they controlled the shipments; and until their money advanced and stipulated profits were received, they were equitably the owners and in control. The senior Rappal, or Bowen & Co., were agents to purchase, with a stipulation for compensation for services, in the amount received exceeding a named sum.

Rappal, Sons & Co. were in the commission business known to the bank to be in that business. They were not buyers and sellers, but factors — agents to sell. Presumably, therefore, moneys deposited by them were the proceeds of cattle consigned to them for sale. Their business being known to the bank, such presumption goes with their deposits; and while not of itself notice, is a circumstance to compel inquiry on the part of the bank in respect to any particular deposit. We do not mean to be understood as implying that a bank receiving deposits from one whom it knows to be in the com

Opinion of the Court.

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mission business receives every deposit in trust for any unknown principal. A bank is not sponsor for all its depositors, although it may know the character of their business. Its relations to its depositors are those of debtor; and, generally, receiving and paying out money on the checks of its depositors, it discharges the full measure of its obligations. It is not ordinarily bound to inquire whence the depositor received the moneys deposited, or what obligation such depositor is under to other parties. It is only when there gather around any deposit, or line of deposits, circumstances of a peculiar nature, which individualize that deposit or line of deposits, and inform the bank of peculiar facts of equitable cognizance, that it is debarred from treating the deposit as that of moneys belonging absolutely to the depositor. We notice, therefore, the peculiar circumstances which cast knowledge upon this bank, in respect to these deposits. And this knowledge was not limited to the character of the business of the depositor, that of commission merchants, but extended to its results. The bank account of the Rappals with the appellant, from the 1st of January, 1885, up to and including the end of these transactions, is presented. It was a bank account of continuous and increasing overdrafts. Striking the balance, for the several months, of the daily credits and overdrafts, the average result against the Rappals, month by month, was as follows: January, $1476.25"; February, $3275.64; March, $2483.77; April, $3122.20; May, $6526.03; June, $9850.46 ; July, $10-, 897.96; August, $12,494.05; September, $15,227.91; and in the two days of October prior to that deposit which closed the overdraft, the account was thus : October 1, $18,922.21, overdraft; October 2, $18,454.89, overdraft. From the 1st of August until October 2, only on three occasions — August 27 and 28 and September 3 - were there balances to the credit of the Rappals, and those of small amounts.

It is obvious from this account that the business of the Rappals was failing. The story of their failure was written by the officers of the bank on its books, and it knew all that such story told. It knew that it had, as hereafter disclosed, given credit to the Rappals with the Kansas City dealers. It

Opinion of the Court.

saw them failing in business. It knew their business was that of factor, receiving and selling for others on commission. Why this particular occasion should be seized upon, the testimony does not disclose; but is it not obvious that the bank intended to arrest this continuing overdraft; and, familiar with the character of the business of the Rappals, contemplated, with or without their knowledge, the seizure and appropriation of the proceeds of some consignment ?

Further, as heretofore suggested, it appears that the assistant cashier of the Kansas City Stock Yards Bank wrote to the cashier of the Union Stock Yards National Bank a letter of inquiry as to the financial standing, individual responsibility and nature of the business of Rappal, Sons & Co., to which this answer was returned :

“UNION STOCK YARDS NATIONAL BANK, July 20, 1885. " P. Connelly, Esq., Assistant Cashier, Kansas City, Mo.

“DEAR SIR: Your favor of the 17th instant received. Rappal, Sons & Co. are a firm in good standing, financially and otherwise. I don't think they keep much ready money in the business, but F.J. Rappal owns large farms near Joliet, and is estimated worth $50,000 to $60,000. He is a man of high character and has always had good credit, even before he had any means. “ Yours truly,

G. E. CONRAD, Cashier."

, This letter was shown to the Gillespies, and they were informed at the same time that the Kansas City bank had arrangements for notification by telegraph in case any draft was not paid. The effect of this letter was to encourage confidence in the Rappals, whatever may have been the motive of the defendant bank; and, in this respect, it is fair to say that there is no evidence to justify the inference that it was known to be inaccurate or intentionally misleading; but here, as often elsewhere, results rather than motives are significant as to determining liability. Again, it will be noticed that the Gillespies were advised that non-payment of any draft would be promptly communicated by telegraph. That was in fact

VOL. CXXXVII-27

Opinion of the Court.

the uniform custom of the defendant bank. It so happened that the various shipments of cattle and the corresponding drafts were on different days. The first shipment reached Chicago, and the cattle were sold on October 2, — Friday. The draft for the amount thereof, $6506.40, arrived the same day and was presented to the Rappals, and not paid. No explanation was given to the bank by the Rappals for the non-payment. No notice was communicated by telegraph of the non-payment, and no information was received at Kansas City thereof until Monday, October 5. On Saturday, October -3, and Monday, October 5, the balance of the shipment, being the bulk of the cattle, were received and sold, the major portion being so received and sold on Saturday. As the draft received Friday was not accepted or paid, if notice thereof had been given promptly by telegraph, as was the custom, and as the Gillespies were advised was the custom, they might have protected the balance of the cattle, and prevented the Rappals from receiving and selling them. It is fair to say that the testimony shows, and so it was found by the Circuit Judge, that this failure to telegraph was due to the negligence of a clerk, and was not the intentional act of the bank; but we cannot conceive that the question of motive is significant. The result of the omission of the officers of the bank to telegraph Friday, whether intentional or accidental, was the same; and the bank is equally responsible whether the result flowed from negligent or intentional omission. Again, it must be noticed that when, on Friday morning, the bank received the draft, it was information to it that a shipment to the Rappals accompanied the draft; and when the Rappals declined to pay that draft, that fact suggested either that the Rappals had not received the shipment or else that, having received it, they proposed to appropriate the proceeds and repudiate the obligations of factor to principal. When the sale tickets were deposited that evening, it was notice that they had received the shipment, and that for some reason they were contesting their liability to the consignor. As the office of the Rappals was but four or five hundred feet from the bank, it knew that it could ascertain the exact facts; but it failed to make inquiry ; and

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