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and the whole is surrounded by a neat iron railing. On the right of the chapel, as you ascend the hill, is a gateway; on entering, turn to the right, which will take you through a solid archway cut through the rock, and made serpentine for easy descent for funeral processions to the cemetery, which is most tastefully laid out with every variety of trees, shrubbery, flowers, &c. The neat white gravelled walks are also made serpentine to give effect to the numerous chaste white marble tombs which are seen in all directions, towering amid the green foliage. Standing in the centre, one can imagine himself a prisoner among the dead: for all around are perpendicular solid stone walls of sixty feet in height, which have the appearance, at first, of the broadside of a three-decker, as tombs have been made by excavating the solid rock in checker work style, with doors of black oak, and galleries made for the purpose of depositing the dead in each. The costly white marble tomb of Mr. Huskisson, M. P., with his effigy in marble on its top, who was killed on the day of the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, and built at the expense of the Railway Company, is alone worth the time in visiting St. James' Cemetery.

The factories for making the beautiful Liverpool ware so noted in the United States, should by all means be visited. If the tourist has a desire for a dinner or tea set, he can have it made to any pattern, with initials or motto on each piece, without an extra charge, and on his return can take it with him free of duty.

The merchants' country mansions in and around the picturesque villages of Bootle and Waterloo, about three miles from Liverpool, are built with much taste, and the gardens and grounds are exquisitely laid out, without regarding the expense. Strangers are permitted to examine them, and every attention is paid in pointing out all worthy of observation while roaming through the grounds. Some of them, indeed, have a most romantic and enchanting appearance. True politeness, so characteristic generally in a real English gentleman at liome, was truly exemplified during my visit, to the very letter.

Omnibuses run to Waterloo and Bootle every hour during the day, and the road smooth and excellent. A seat on the outside on a pleasant afternoon, to view the country, will well repay the tourist for the trouble and trifling expense.

CHAPTER 11.

Liverpool ; Its salt works; Egremont; View of Liverpool ; Its tower

ing chimneys; Docks ; Shipping; Employment and ignorance of children; Channel scenery ; Welsh mountains; Intended siege of Liverpool, and capitulation of Leith, in 1779, by Paul Jones; Astonishment of British officers; Pleasing result; Railway station-house; Admirable arrangements ; Railway to London, &c.; Tunnel; Distances; Fares; Time ; Newton race-course ; Jockey Club; Dinner; Toasts ; Manchester; Population ; Public buildings ; Botanical Garden; Factories, their appearance; The ladics ; Streets; Shops ; Mrs. B.; Emigration; Military, &c. &c.

The tourist should, while sojourning at Liverpool, visit the immense and costly salt-works, about three miles on the Mersey, above the town, by stepping on board one of the small steamers that run to and from the works every hour during the day, for six pence passage. The great number of cargoes of salt which arrive in the United States from Liverpool, are made at these works by the use of coals, the fires being kept up constantly throughout the year. The sun not having the power, in consequence of the dense atmosphere, to create a sufficient evaporation for the purpose,-an advantage which the Americans have, and improve in some sections of the United States, but in a limited degree, and not sufficient for the increased demand of so necessary an article.

Egremont is a picturesque village, opposite Liverpool, over the Mersey, in Cheshire county. Steamers pass to and from the village constantly, and from there the tourist will have a full view of Liverpool, its docks, shipping, &c., also the towering chimneys attached to the factories, which are so attractive to all visiting Liverpool, and seen at so great a distance, pouring out their clouds of dense black smoke. Some of these chimneys are one hundred and fifty feet high, and very costly. While roving about the beautiful environs of Egremont, one afternoon, listening to the beautiful song of the sky-lark, poised high in air, and the mournful cuckoo, hid among the branches of the beautiful, fragrant hawthorn, I met two young girls of twelve years of age, shoeless, and without bonnets, very engaging in their manners, gathering up from the road manure with their hands, and placing it in wheelbarrows. On questioning them, they said, for every load they' wheeled home their father gave them a penny. I informed them I came from America, and inquired if they had ever heard of such a country. Their reply was, No—and quickly asked how I learned to speak English so soon. I inquired if they knew there was such a country as France. They said their father did, and he hated all Frenchmen, because they hated England. Thus, two handsome young girls, who should have been at school, were at work on the queen's highway, in the disgusting employment of scavengers, on a warm summer's day, to earn the sum of one penny and although vessels from America were sailing up the river almost daily, with their colours flying, within sight of their own house, these two girls never heard of such a place as America, and I should presume never saw or read a newspaper, or saw a map of the world, or even one of their own country.

l'he scenery, in approaching Liverpool from the sea, is very picturesque. The highly-cultivated lands, and the distant mountains in Wales, which seem towering to the clouds, with neat white cottages dotted around, have a very pleasing effect after a few weeks at sea. While sailing up channel

, admiring the bold cliff shores, I could not resist reminding the British officers who were standing on deck, pointing to different objects, of the time when those shores echoed and re-echoed with the thunder of Paul Jones' cannon, while meteor-like he dashed up channel with his squadron, for the purpose of laying Liverpool under contribution to assist America in her struggle for freedom; and but for a sudden storm would have most probably effected his object as easy as he did the city of Leith, Scotland, on the 10th of September, 1779, when its corporation humbly capitulated to the American squadron under that chivalrous commander. This, at first, was listened to with a smile of incredulity by my fellow-passengers, who were mostly officers of the British army, from Canada ; and though reiterated as an historical fact, still they were unwilling to believe the assertion, until I proved it by reading the original document of capitulation of the corporation of Leith, in 1779. Nor would they believe that Paul Jones was any thing else but a buccaneer in the American revolution, fighting on his own hook for plunder, until I convinced them by exhibiting the original commission from Congress, under which he commanded American ships of war until the peace of 1783. All, however, was in good humour, and at dinner a toast was given to the memory of the gallant Paul Jones, of the American revolution, drank standing—which was responded to by my toasting the memory of the gallant Lord Nelson, for which I. was invited, when in London, by Colonel G., to dine with him at the Army and Navy Club House, King Street.

Manchester is thirty-one miles from Liverpool by railway-fare one dollar, first cars; second class, equally as commodious in every respect, starting at the same moment, seventy-five cents. The cars are made to carry eight passengers; each seat is numbered, and a ticket with the number of the seat is given to each one on paying his fare at the office: this excellent management prevents all unpleasant feelings or disputes about seats while on the road. The luggage also of each passenger is placed under cover on the top of the car in which he is seated, so that the traveller can in a moment's notice, have his luggage delivered him free of charge, for no person attached to the company is permitted to take any fee for placing on or removing the luggage of the passengers ; if so, he is instantly dismissed. All persons attached to the company are known from their uniform dress, which prevents imposition. And that no imposition shall be practised on the passengers who wish for a cab to take them to any part of the town at which they may arrive, the company have their own cabs and coaches, with fixed rates, and on applying to the agent, he calls a cab, has the luggage placed on it free of charge or trouble, and thc coachman having his orders, you are driven to the place and your luggage safely deposited without exchanging a single word. The station-house at Liverpool is of white stone, of great magnitude, over three hundred feet front, and with its immense pillars, fronting on the square, makes a most beautiful display. All the arrangements in and around the establishment are in perfect keeping with the costly structure. The ladies' and gentlemen's rooms are as well furnished as any hotel parlour, and the attendants polite and attentive. It is worth an hour's time for the tourist to visit this railway station while sojourning at Liverpool; by informing the polite agent that you are an American, every department will be thrown open for inspection and every information given. Should you secure a seat for London, Manchester, or Birmingham, the agent will hand you a card to be delivered to the agent at either of those stations, from whom you will receive every attention, and who will see that no imposition is practised on your person by any

The trains start for Manchester every half hour; the time, one hour. To London the trains start at four o'clock and seven o'clock, P. M., fare to London, two hundred and twenty miles, £1 108.; time six hours. To Birmingham, one hundred miles (half way) 16s. time three hours. A tunnel cut through a solid rock of two miles, commences at the Liverpool station.

No expense seems to have been spared on this road; all the way up to London it has the same firm, solid finish, as durable as when first completed. On arriving at Liverpool, however, I would advise the tourist to step in the first bookstore, and purchase, for a shilling,

6. Bradshaw's Railway Companion,” containing the times of departure,

one.

fares, all the railways in the kingdom, also hackney coach and cab fare from all the principal railway stations, illustrated with maps of the country throughout which the railways pass, with plans of London, Birmingham, Leeds, Liverpool and Manchester. On arriving at Newton junction, half way to Manchester, I was so struck with its picturesque appearance and a race coming off, that I left the cars, giving my luggage in charge of the conductor, to be left at Manchester, until called for at the station office, and having the agent's card at Liverpool, I presented it to the President of the Club, who immediately introduced me on the stand, where were collected a large number of the Club, with many fashionable ladies from Liverpool. I was much disappointed both in the appearance and speed of the horses, and felt confident there were many horses in the United States that could easily have taken the plate, had they been on the spot and entered. I dined with the Club, as did many ladies, and notwithstanding some few had taken Father Matthew's pledge who were present, the wine went merrily round, and among the toasts, one to the United States was drank with cheers, and waving of handkerchiefs by the ladies, a complimentary one to Albion's fair Isle followed, which was also received with cheers, after which, on the ladies retiring, some fine songs closed the sumptuous repast.

The five o'clock train coming in sight, I took my leave, after many thanks, for the honour conferred on a stranger, an American citizen, one of their descendants. In half an hour the train was at the Manchester station, distance fifteen miles, and receiving my baggage, drove to the Black Bear," Piccadilly, and having three hours daylight, I wended my way through the business part of the town, so celebrated for its factories, which for more than half a century had supplied my country with cotton fabrics of every variety and pattern, to the tune of millions, in exchange for the raw material, cotton from the Southern States.

Manchester contains about three hundred thousand souls, who are, and have been, mainly supported by the numerous factories of cotton, silk, iron, &c., in a great degree, but the great falling off in orders from the United States, from the increased number of factories in New England, as well as the great competition in Belgium, Germany, Austria, Russia, and other nations, has caused a very great and alarming change in the picture of what Manchester was once, and what she now is. In the United States, the march is onward in improvements, even while steam power is in its infancy; and the time is hastening on with rapid strides when America will cease to be dependent upon any nation for these pro. ductions, but, on the contrary, will, in her own vessels supply the world. Such was once the great despatch of business in the factories at Manchester, that it was not uncommon for a whole cargo

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