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of cotton to be discharged from a New York ship at Prince's dock, Liverpool, transported by railway to Manchester, and made into muslin, ready for the same ship on her return voyage. Those palmy days are past, and probably will never return during the present generation. To keep the people from outbreaks, the military guard are on the increase, and the day before my arrival, a poor hungry wretch, who attempted to excite a mob to pillage, hurled a stone at the guard, and was immediately shot dead on the spot, when the rioters dispersed. I saw the stain of the poor fellow's blood on the pavement, who thus fell a victim to hunger.
I visited many of the factories, after presenting letters of introduction, and assuring the agents I was unacquainted with machinery. Having visited a large number of the New England factories, and many at the South, I must candidly and conscientiously confess I give preference to those in the United States, in buildings, machinery, and cleanliness. Having read and heard of the emaciated and sickly appearance of the females employed in the English factories generally, I was pleased, and agreeably surprised, on seeing the fine, healthy, blooming cheek, and smiling phiz, which met my eye in all the factories I visited in Manchester. The thousands I saw at work, exhibited a cheerfulness and a contented mind, and all dressed with perfect neatness. The agent, in conducting me through one of the factories, pointed to some cotton which he said had just arrived from Charleston, near the celebrated Bunker Hill. I took my pocket map and politely pointed out to him his mistake, showing him Charleston, S. C., and Charlestown, Mass., with the difference of latitude, for which he gave me many thanks, and wished much to possess the map of so great a country, the first map, he said, he had ever seen of America.
The public buildings are- - the infirmary, which is indeed a credit to the town ; the commercial rooms, exchange, town hall, assembly rooms, theatre, &c. The botanic garden is over eighteen acres, and admirably arranged; I found it a place of great resort, especially for ladies, on whose smiles the beautiful and various plants seemed to feed, and have their existence, from their healthy appearance, and delicious perfume thrown around.
Some of the streets are wide, and in fine order, as well as the smooth side walks. The shops make a very showy appearance, and are arranged with taste by the ladies who attend them. Calico is sold by the pound, which I never saw before or since. All the ladies dress neat, but never gaudy, and seldom are seen with many colours; their walk firm and elastic, figures faultless; and are affable in the extreme. I had the pleasure of calling on Mrs. B. and family, from Portsmouth, N. H., and passed a pleasant evening in talking of old times. Mr. B., with his family left Portsmouth many years ago, and shortly after arriving in England, died, leaving an amiable wife and three daughters. I found them surrounded with every thing desirable, and happy as they could be, separated from kindred and friends, by an ocean of three thousand miles over.
I was informed by an intelligent factor that the time was fast approaching throughout England, when one half of the present number of factories must necessarily be closed, as it must prove ruinous to keep them in operation, and even madness to strive to compete with those in the United States, and elsewhere, which every year demonstrated : and the consequence will be, (said he,) all who have the means will emigrate to the United States, and as land is cheap, become tillers of the soil. Those who are poor but industrious, will be assisted to follow, and as land can be bought on credit, or worked on shares, advantage will be taken of it, and thus become, in time, American citizens, rather than starve, or become paupers in their native land.
Manchester, previous to the late war with England, was the most thriving factory-town in England—that war happily opened the eyes of the Americans to their dependence, since which, as if by magic, thousands of factories, have sprung into existence, and instead of being importers, have become exporters.
WHO CAN STOP THE BALL ?
The Midland Counties; Servants at English Hotels; Hints to Tourists;
Railway to Leeds, distance, fare; Rochdale, Wakefield; Their factories; Leeds, its appearance; Factories; Collieries; Churches; Derby; Distance, fare, its central position ; Railway station, its magnitude; Admirable arrangements; Agents; Fare and distance to London; Birmingham and Sheffield ; Appearance of the country ; Cars and speed; Barrow-upon-Soar; Petrified fossils; Quarndon, its appearance; Romantic walk; Quarndon Hall; Ancient church; Chime bells; Ringers; Mr. Balm, the wealthy factor ; Laughable anecdote ; Dumplings for -two, etc. etc.
My letters from London apprising me at Manchester that my personal attendance would not be required for two or three weeks, I concluded, by the advice of my friends, to visit the midland counties of Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, &c., taking in my way the much-celebrated Bosworth Field, and Newstead Abbey, the late residence of Lord Byron; and on a fine morning in June, having settled my small, moderate bill at the “ Black Bear," was about taking my seat in the cab I had engaged the evening previous to take me to the railway station for Yorkshire, when I was of a sudden surrounded by all the servants of the establishment, asking to be remembered, from the head cook to the boots. After some little patient delay, I gratified each, and drove off amid the smiling throng to the station house, where, stating to a friend who was there to see me set off, and who furnished me introductory letters to places I intended visiting, he smilingly advised me, while travelling in England, on asking for my bill at a hotel, to request that the servants also be charged in it, and at the completion of my jaunt I should find myself a few pounds the richer, save myself much trouble and mortification, and to recollect Dr. Franklin's maxim—"take care of the pence, and the pounds will take care of themselves." I followed the advice of my friend, and found he was correct; and would also here advise the tourist to be sure to do the same; for as servants at hotels seldom have any set wages, they depend upon travellers for the means to keep themselves well dressed in England: some even pay a certain sum to the landlord for the place they wish in the establishment, which they term privateering on a small scale. In London, some of the upper servants pay a certain amount to the proprietors of the hotels and club houses, for the privilege of taxing travellers, and gathering loose pickings, as they term it. The charge of the servants in the bill of the traveller, as before mentioned, will save much inconvenience and many shillings while abroad.
On leaving Manchester, I paid my fare to Leeds, 60 miles, fare six shillings, with the privilege of stopping at any town or station between the two places, at option, without additional expense—thus giving me an opportunity of visiting any factory town where the train usually stopped and taking a seat in any train coming down during the day for Leeds, at which place my baggage was taken, and was to remain until I arrived. The tourist will find this plan a pleasant and economical one to adopt at all places while abroad, and by which he will gain much more information than travelling over the railway at 40 miles the hour, having only a bird's-eye view of the part of the country through which his business or inclination may lead him.
Rochdale, eleven miles from Manchester, is a market-town, and appeared very flourishing, trading in slate, stone, coal, &c., and has several extensive factories, all of which were in full play; and there did not appear to be an idle person about the town, which was somewhat remarkable when so near Manchester, where thousands were out of employ.
From Rochdale, I took the second train down to the ancient town of Wakefield, distance 37 miles. This old and celebrated town in Y shire has very extensive factories of wool stuffs, cloth, iron, &c.: some of them were closed, while others appeared to have full employ: the females in the factories were generally young, looked somewhat emaciated from long confinement and hard work, yet a pleasing smile showed that they were contented even with their small weekly pittance. The grain market appeared fully supplied, as well as the cattle market. Some of them would do credit to any country, and sales were rapid on that day. King Edward the Fourth erected a chapel in Wakefield, on the stone bridge over the river Calder, in memory of his father, who was killed in battle near the bridge, in 1460.
Leeds is twelve miles from Wakefield, to which town I had paid my fare (six shillings) from Manchester, and lies on the river Aire. The factories turn out more cloth here than all the other factories in Yorkshire. The cloth halls, where is deposited all the cloths for sale, are well worth an hour's time to examine, and admire the neat, admirable manner in which all are arranged for examination. There are also carpet factories, and several potteries; and the hum of business appeared to be heard through all the streets. There are also here immense collieries, great quantities of which are sent to Hull and York by canal. A canal also runs to Liverpool, from which place there is a constant business communication. The churches are numerous at Leeds. Some of them appeared very ancient, both from the exterior and interior, and new churches were being erected, which show that religion was not forgotten amid the noise, din, and dense smoke from the factories. The tall chimneys at Leeds can be seen for miles distant, and appear like so many craters belching out their black smoke, obscuring the sun at noonday. Leeds is 195 miles northwest from London.
From Leeds, I took the railway for Derby, in the county of Derbyshire, distance sixty-one miles, fare six shillings. Derby station is in the very centre of England, and from there trains pass to all parts of the kingdom almost every hour in the day and night. It is the largest station in the world, covering several acres, and the tourist, by stopping a day to observe the admirable manner and carefulness of the numerous and attentive agents to prevent any delay of the trains in arriving and departing constantly, and to see every passenger seated with his ticket in the beautiful commodious cars, will not grudge the time. It seems to a stranger, a complete fair, from the thousands going and coming, and all without noise or confusion. Distance to Birmingham, 40 miles—fare, four shillings. To London, 150 miles, fare £l. To Sheffield, six shillings. The whole distance from Liverpool is through a rich, highly-cultivated country: even the railways on each side are cultivated, and all appears as a garden; the meanest cottage has its garden of everblooming flowers, which skirt the road the whole distance, which is very pleasing to the eye, and adds much to the pleasure of travelling in England. The cars make but little noise in running, no jar nor rattling of windows, and the passengers can read and converse with as much ease as in their own quiet rooms, and but eight inside makes it very pleasant. The cars run at the rate of thirtyfive miles the hour, including stops. Accidents seldom occur, so careful and attentive are all along the road.
Derby is a beautiful and busy town, has many factories of cotton and fine worsted hosiery,-has a fabric of excellent porcelain. The jewelry and lapidary branchss are also carried on to a considerable extent. Derbyshire marbles, spars and crystals are also wrought into a variety of fancy ornamental articles. The river Derwent runs through the town, over which is a fine stone bridge of great solidity, and adds much to the picturesque appearance of the town.
From Derby, I took the railway for Barrow-upon-Soar, in Lei. cestershire, distance twenty-five miles-fare two shillings-time, forty minutes; it is an ancient village, and its trade seems to be in lime of a very superior kind, and in great demand. I was shown here petrified fish, fossils, &c., found among the limestone, fifty