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to a partial close in the month of December, 1879, by the influence of the treaty powers, but chiefly by the active steps taken by Captain Deinhardt, of His Imperial German Majesty's ship Bismarck, acting on the behalf and on the request of the representatives of Great Britain and the United States, as well as those of Germany.
“ 25. Malietoa Talavoa was then recognized and declared to be king ‘for lifetime,' and Malietoa Laupepa was appointed regent.
“26. It may be convenient in this place to state that as far back as 1873, the so-called Government of Samoa consisted of two councils, named respectively the Taimua and Faipule.
" 27. These councils existed at the date of the first visit of Colonel Steinberger in the year 1873.
“ 28. Upon the return of this gentleman from Hamburg in 1875, they, at his instance, increased the number of representative chiefs, re-organized their government to some extent, and elected the chief Malietoa Talavoa as their King. Colonel Steinberger himself became prime minister.
“29. This government, however, broke up in February, 1876, when, at the instance of the American Consul Forster and King Malietoa, the premier, Colonel Steinberger, was removed from Samoa by Captain Stevens, of Her Majesty's ship, Barracouta.
“30. King Malietoa was shortly afterwards deposed by the friends of Colonel Steinberger, and an acephalous government was conducted by the chiefs calling themselves Taimua and Faipule.
" 31. It was with this government without the concurrenoe of Malietoa and the strong party following his lead, that the German-Samoan treaty was concluded.
32. “In March, 1879, the Taimua and Faipule placed themselves in the hands of General J. J. Bartlett, described in the Samoan official papers as a gentleman of the United States of America.' His connection with the government occasioned some difficulty, but was of brief duration.
“33. The British-Samoan treaty was concluded with the government of Malietoa who soon established themselves in power.
" 34. In this matter Sir Arthur Gordon (representing Her Majesty's Government) appealed for an opinion to the different consular officers resident in Apia, the naval officers in command of the English, German, and American ships of war in harbor, and Her Majesty's deputy commissioner and late acting consul, who unanimously informed him that in their judgment Malietoa was entitled to recognition as a de facto king, and was in a position to enter into treaty engagements with Great Britain.
" 35. Malietoa was generally recognized as the chief most entitled by birth and actual authority to be king. He was accordingly proclaimed, and anointed king at Mulinuu, on the 24th May, 1879.
“36. This position, as above stated, was subsequently confirmed by the influence and authority of the three treaty powers, in December, 1879 (vide articles of agreement signed by the contending native parties on board His Imperial Majesty's ship Bismarck, the 230 December, 1879, and witnessed by Captain Deinhardt, Captain Chuden, and Consul Weber).
"37. The party opposed to Malietoa shortly afterwards repudiated their obligations under the agreement referred to, and until the middle or end of June, 1880, the island of Upolu was the scene of constant fighting and disorder.
** 38. For the better security of life and property during the continuance of strife, the contending parties had already agreed with the foreign consuls to define and respect a neutral territory in and about Apia. This agreement was made on the 29th May, 1879.
“ 39. On the 24th March, 1880, the foreign representatives agreed with King Malietoa for the constitution of an executive council for the Samoan Government.
“40. This agreement, however, was not confirmed by the treaty powers. Her Majesty's government were of the opinion that a council of the nature proposed would exercise so preponderating an influence over Samoans, over the officers of Samoa, as practically to throw the government of the işlands upon the Three Governments, who would be represented by the executive council.
“41. During 1880 the contending native factions in Samoa seldom ceased quarreling, and petty conflicts were of frequent occurrence.
" 42. King Malietoa Talavoa died on the 7th November, 1880, and on the thirteenth of the month the consuls wrote to both war parties proposing a cessation of hostilities.
" 43. The King's party accepted, the others declined these proposals.
" 44. In March, 1881, Malietoa Laupepa, the Vice-King, was appointed king, the chief of the opposing party protesting, and notifying that they had chosen Tamasese, a chief of the Tapua family, to be king.
* 45. Tamasese was not recognized by the consuls, and on the 28th April, Malietoa Laupepa was received by the captain of the German corvette Herthe on board his ship, and saluted as King.
"46. On the 12th July, 1881, an agreement for peace was signed by both native parties on board the United States ship Lackawanna.
" 47. Peace was thereupon proclaimed, and Malietoa accepted as King, with Tamasese as Vice-King.
* 48. Two days afterward several individual fights occurred in Apia, between the party chiefs of the King and the Vice-King. The municipal policemen were severely wounded. Order was temporarily restored by an armed party promptly landed from the German gunboat Mowe.
“ 49. After numerous distractions a new government was inaugurated at Mulinuu on the 12th July, 1882.
“ 50. The whole of the consular body was present, and the meeting was considered 'a thoroughly representative one.' Malietoa Laupepa and Tamasese were again saluted as King and Vice-King. Nine laws or regulations were framed by this government, and copies thereof sent to the consuls.
“ 51. With the exceptions of minor difficulties and rumors of divisions among the people, affairs went on more quietly until the middle of the year 1883.
“52. In July of this year King Malietoa complained that the Tupua family (Tamasese) were again plotting, and sought the advice and aid of the consuls.
“ 53. The consuls promised the exercise of their good offices, acting German consul Von Oertzen stating that he held instruc. tions to the effect that so long as Malietoa observed his agreements and did not provoke war, he was to support him, by force, if necessary.'
• 54. On the 29th September, 1883, an agreement was signed between this government and foreign representatives, protecting (protracting ?) for an indefinite period the municipal convention of the 2d September.
* 55. At this period, and owing to a variety of circumstances, commercial and political rivalries in Samoa and the Pacific generally were much quickened.
" 56. For reasons which have been explained by the Imperial German Government, its consul-general at Samoa had, on the 10th November, 1884, concluded a convention with the Samoan government providing for the creation of a Samoan-German council of government.
* 57. King Malietoa refused or failed to execute the terms of the convention.
“ 58. In some other matters also King Malietoa offended the German consul-general, who thereupon, on the 23 January, 1885, by way of reprisal' seized or attached the sovereign rights of King Malietoa in and over Apia, and hoisted the Imperial German flag on Mulinuu Point.
" 59. The reasons given for this act on the part of the German consul-general are given in the annextures forming copies of communications from that officer to the King, the resident consuls, and the public of Samoa.
“ 60. The act of the German consul was at once protested against by the British and American consuls.
“ 61. A few days after these occurrences Tamasese, the ViceKing and head of the Tupua party, announced that he had separated from the government. His party issued a proclamation, hoisted a flag, and went into rebellion.
“ 63. After the lapse of twelve months during which the relations of all parties were much strained, King Malietoa by reason of the pressure brought to bear upon him by M. Weber, was compelled to move from Mulinuu. He then hoisted his flag at Apia within the boundaries of the neutral zone governed by the municipality under the convention of the 2d September, 1879.
"64. From this position it was hauled down by an armed body of seamen landed from his Imperial German Majesty's ship of war Albatross on the 230 January, 1886.
“ 65. This act was again protested against by the British and American consuls.
**67. Upon the departure of the king and his people from Mulinuu, and its seizure by M. Weber, for the company represented by him, the whole country became more disturbed than
King Malietoa failing io hoist his flag at Apia, established his government at a village a mile or two west of that place. The Tamasese or Tupua party had already hoisted their flag and fixed their quarters at Leulumoega.
** 68. On the 28th April, 1886, Admiral Knorr commanding a German squadron of three ships, arrived at Apia, when it was hoped that a better understanding would be arrived at.
* 69. From official and other information it would appear that
the admiral accorded no recognition whatever to King Malietoa or his Government.
“ 70. On the 16th of the month the squadron left for the North Pacific.
" 71. On the 13th, however, Malietoa alarmed by the support he believed was being given by the German authorities to the opposition chief, Tamasese, had applied to the consul for the United States for assistance and protection.
“72. The application was acceded to by Mr. Greenebaum, the United States consul, who on the 14th wrote out a notification, which in consequence of delay in printing, or for some other unexplained cause, does not seem to have been published until the 16th.
"73. Upon the 16th, after the German squadron had left the port of Apia, the United States consul hoisted the Samoan flag under the American colors, as an indication that he had, on behalf of his government, assumed a protectorate over Samoa.
“74. On the same day that the German fleet left, Her Majesty's ship Diamond arrived, and on the 20th the United States ship of war Mohican also anchored at Apia.
“75. The complications were now daily growing more acute. A meeting was therefore held at the British consulate on the 25th, at which Captain Clayton of Her Majesty's ship Diamond, and Captain Day of the United States ship Mohican were present, together with the consuls of England and America.
"76. It was then arranged that the two consuls should proceed in the Mohican to Leulumæga, and endeavor to bring about a reconciliation with Tamasese, or obtain a promise from him to keep
"77. Tamasese behaved with rudeness and peremptorily refused to accept advice.
"78. Malietoa then prepared in earnest for war.
“ 79. The armed factions had now approached within striking distance of each other, though, by the exercise of unremitting persuasion on the part of the British consul, King Malietoa kept his force in camp.
"80. The King declared to the two consuls that the rebel party had been recognized by the German authorities, and that the German flag was flying over Apia, while the German consul kept his (the King's) down by force. He wished, he added, “to end it at once.'
“81. Further meetings were then held between the consuls,