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and tides on the movement of material on the sea-coast, in papers read at the Bristol and Glasgow Meetings of the British Association, some part of which is embodied in this pamphlet." The part relating to the protection of the sea-coast appeared in a series of articles in the Engineer in 1899, and is reprinted here with the permission of the editor of that journal, some additional information since obtained being added. Descriptions also of some of the most remarkable shingle-banks and sand beaches, and an article on the settlement of solid matter in salt and fresh water, have at different times been contributed to Nature, and are here partly reproduced with the sanction of the editor.
The author hopes that by collecting together the information scattered throughout these papers it may be of service to those interested in the protection of the sea-coast.
As the terms “windward” and “ leeward” have been generally used to denote respectively the direction from which the normal direction of the littoral drift takes place, and that to which it moves, these have been retained, although wind is not the cause of the regular and continuous drift.
The word “shore” is used to denote the margin of the sea above high water; and “ beach,” the space between this and lowwater line.
1 “The Action of Winds and Tides on the Movement of Material on the SeaCoast,” British Association, Bristol, 1898; “ The Source of Warp in the Humber," Glasgow, 1901.
3. “Sea-Coast Protection,” the Engineer, April 7, 14, 21, 28, May 5, 12, 19, 1899.
3 “The Northam Pebble Ridge,” Nature, Dec. 30, 1897 ; "The Wearing away of Sand Beaches," June 1, 1899; “ The Colour of Flints,” Nov. 30, 1899; “ SeaCoast Destruction and Littoral Drift,” Aug. 23, 1900; “The Settlement of Solid Matter in Fresh and Salt Water,” June 20, 1901.
Classifications of drift-Source of supply—Present contour of sea-coast due
to glacial action and wave-motion-Beach material derived from the land
Hove--Scarborough-Westgate-Bognor-Clacton --Southend - Bridlington
-Black pool-Dymchurch-Herne Bay-Felixstowe-Morecambe Bay-
Effect of groynes on wave-action-On sandy beaches—Distance apart-Effect
of harbour jetties as groynes-Height_Temporary-Sloping-Direction
COASTS OF NORTH OF FRANCE, BELGIUM, AND HOLLAND.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
37 44 46
1. SHORE WAVE BREAKING ON SEA-WALL, HASTINGS . Frontispiece
SCARBOROUGH . . . .
, (New Wall). ..
FELIXSTOWE . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SCHEVENISGEN . . . . . . . . . .