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and tides on the movement of material on the sea-coast, in papers read at the Bristol and Glasgow Meetings of the British Association, some part of which is embodied in this pamphlet.1 The part relating to the protection of the sea-coast appeared in a series of articles in the Engineer in 1899, and is reprinted here with the permission of the editor of that journal, some additional information since obtained being added.2 Descriptions also of some of the most remarkable shingle-banks and sand beaches, and an article on the settlement of solid matter in salt and fresh water, have at different times been contributed to Nature? and are here partly reproduced with the sanction of the editor.

The author hopes that by collecting together the information scattered throughout these papers it may be of service to those interested in the protection of the sea-coast.

As the terms "windward" and "leeward" have been generally used to denote respectively the direction from which the normal direction of the littoral drift takes place, and that to which it moves, these have been retained, although wind is not the cause of the regular and continuous drift.

The word "shore" is used to denote the margin of the sea above bigh water; and "beach," the space between this and lowwater line.

1 "The Action of Winds and Tides cm the Movement of Material on the SeaCoast,'' British Association, Bristol, 1898; "The Source of Warp in the Humber," Glasgow, 1901.

- "Sea-Coast Protection," the Engineer, April 7, 14, 21, 28, May 6, 12, 19, 1899.

1 "The Nortliam Pebble Ridge," Nature, Deo. 30,1897; "The Wearing away of Sand Beaches," June 1, 1899; "The Colour of Flints," Nov. 30, 1899; "SeaCoast Destruction and Littoral Drift," Aug. 23, 1900; "The Settlement of Solid Matter in Fresh and Salt Water," June 20, 1901.




Effect of groynes on wave-action—On sandy beaches—Distance apart—Effect
of harbour jettios as groynes—Height—Temporary—Sloping—Direction
—Length—Cost—Accretion of beaolies due to groynes—Case system of
groynes—Beard's system—Conclusions as to the use and advautages of
groynes—Crown rights lo the beach 11C

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1. Shore Wave Breaking Ok Sea-wall, Hastings . . Frontispiece

2. Section Of Shingle Bank 37

;s. Sand Srit, Gulf Of Dantzig 44

4. Sand Spit, Cape Cod 46

5. Sand Dunes 48

6. Plan Showing Direction Of Drift In A Hay .66

7. Sea-wall At Margate 83

8. „ Bridlington 84

9. Section Of Sea-wall 87

10. Sea Wall At Hove ... 98

11. ., Scarborough 100

12. „ Westgate .... 101

13. „ Clacton (old Wall; 102

14. „ „ (new Wall) 104

15. „ Blackpool 105

16. „ Felixstowe 107

17. ,. Levek Estuary 108

18. ., Trusthorpe 109

19. „ Scheveningen Ill

20. „ Ostend 112

21. Plan Showing Accumulation Of Shingle Against Groynes .... 120

22. Case Groyne 125

23. Lyme Bay, Showing Drift Of Shingle 131

24. Section Of Ciiesil Bank . 146

25. Poole Harbour And Sand-hills .159

26. The Solent, And Hurst Shingle-bank 163

27. Groynes At Hove ... 187

28. Sea-wall, Dymchurch 201

29. Groynes At SAnIMATe 206

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