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stooping shoulders who was bending in evident distress over the stem of a broken hollyhock. I suppose I must have uttered an exclamation in my surprise, for he turned around quickly and saw me. He was evidently as surprised as I, perhaps a little annoyed, too, at being discovered; but he smiled. His face was very kind as he said:

"In spite of our care, Miss, something has broken this flower." "Are—are you the one who has been keeping this dear little house in order?" I asked.

"Yes," he answered. "I knew your grandmother. She spent the happiest years of her life in this house. It was here that, against the wishes of her parents, she lived during the first years of her married life; and it was here that she wrote her best and most famous books. She always came back to it when she needed peace and inspiration. She called it the House of Peace."

Deeply impressed, I could not help blurting out, "But why have you been so good as to care for it? You must have been some one in her life. Who are you?”

"I am the man she did not marry," he said simply.

Mary Katherine Deane.

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E. V. P. STOWITTS, Editor


S in previous years, the LITERARY MAGAZINE will conduct a department of exchange, review, and constructive criticism. It is our desire that this department be patronized by the literary magazines of all other colleges and universities. At the present time, as this issue goes to the press, none of this year's publications have come to the Exchange Editor's desk, but it is earnestly hoped that our former exchanges will honor us with their first number for 1921-1922 before our next issue. It is our intention to establish and maintain during the year a high standard of literary criticism in our review of other publications, and it is our sincere hope that other colleges will, in a spirit of mutual helpfulness, review our efforts along the same lines.

A copy of the present issue will be sent to exchange editors asking them to exchange with us. We trust that there will be a ready response both from them and all other student literary publications.

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HIS section of the MAGAZINE will be devoted to the review of the latest books that come to the attention of the Editor. Criticism of text-books, the latest fiction, poetry, history, and travel will receive unprejudiced and unbiased review, and publishers are invited to send copies of their latest publications to the Editor. Articles in current magazines will frequently be reviewed.

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toms regardless of a standard but they included only those customs marked with the stamp of approval of the group. Here we find what is known as group morality. Even in early society three levels of conduct appeared: (1) conduct arising from instincts and fundamental needs. This is external and customary conduct. (2) Conduct regulated by the standards of society for more or less conscious ends involving the social welfare. Here the man is guided by the group, although we can sometimes see the beginnings of intelligence. Many of his acts, however, are due to habit and accident. (3) Conduct regulated by a standard which is both social and rational which is examined and criticized. Here voluntary activity comes into play, and the element of choice must be exercised.

By consideration of the three levels of conduct in their relation to the history of morals we can trace the evolution of morality from the customary stage to the reflective stage. Since reflective morality is the true agent of moral progress we are concerned in discovering the factors that constitute it. What, in conduct, is it that we judge good and bad, right and wrong? What do we mean by good and bad, right and wrong? How are these In order to conceptions applied to their objects in conduct? accomplish this we must discover the earmarks of the moral situation.

The first factor in a moral situation is voluntary activity. In detecting the moral situation here we are considering it in its broad sense in contrast with the non-moral, not the immoral. An agent can not manifest voluntary activity unless he is responsible. There is no actual condition in moral life in which a responsible man can be compelled to perform a voluntary act without choice on his own part. The agent must not be an imbecile, or insane, or an infant so immature so that he does not realize his action. He must also have some desire and preference in the matter. Circumstances may affect his judgment in a given case and cause him to choose another alternative, but this can not take the case out of the moral sphere. A man's reactions to a case must arise from habitual or partially settled tendencies in his makeup. He

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