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NOTE 0. O. p. 208. AN account of the annual expense of the idol at Juggernaut was laid, not long since, before the English Government in the East. It is as follows:

For his table
Dress
Servants
Expenses at season of pilgrimage
Elephants and horses
Carriage -

£.4,514

339 1,259 1,373

378

839

£.8,702

One hundred and forty-three dancing girls are also maintained in the temple for his service. Buchan. Christ. Research.

NOTE P.P. p. 209. Dr. BUCHANNAN, in his Christian Researches, describes the following spectacle :-“ On the morning after one of the sacrifices to the idol, I visited the Golgotha, the place at Juggernaut to which the dead and dying are conveyed, and I there beheld a poor woman cast out to breathe her last sigh. She was not yet dead. Two infants, doomed to perish with their mother, lay at her feet, watching the dogs and vultures which were preying on the surrounding bodies. The people, in the mean time, passed by, without appearing to notice either the mother or the children.”

The sufferers, the theatre, the barbarity of the passers-by-what a scene!

NOTE Q.Q. p. 214. THE order of castes is as follows:

The first caste issued from the mouth of Brama, and is, therefore, called Bramin, or Wisdom.

The second from the arms, or strength, and is, therefore, named Chateree.

The third from the belly or thighs, or nourish, and is from thence denominated Bice.

The fourth from the feet, subjection, and is called, for that reason, Spoder. Baghvat-Geeta, p. 130. Heetopades, 251.

NOTE R. R. p. 219. THEY have dwelt, with disgusting minuteness, on the circumstances by which a fast may be broken ; and to bathe, to take a medicine, purposely to swallow the saliva, to enjoy the smell of a perfume, to vomit designedly, to kiss or to touch a woman, to breathe the air too freely, to indulge in speech, are among the offences which may render the abstinence of the most self-denying Mussulman of no effect. Mahomet was not less zealous for the observance of insignificant forms than these pious commentators on his doctrines.

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THIS stone is set in silver, and placed about two cubits from the ground, in the wall of the South-east corner of the temple. The pilgrims kiss it with fervent devotion, and sometimes call it the right hand of God. It is supposed to be one of the precious stones of Paradise, and to have fallen from thence on the expulsion of Adam. For many ages it was white, but it has grown black from the touch of impure and sinsul lips.

NOTE T. T. p. 223

THE short quick pace with which the pilgrims proceed round the Caaba, is intended to prove that they have not been so enfeebled by their journey as to be incapacitated from resisting or chastising the enemies of the faith ; and the inquiring manner with which they look back, is to represent the solicitude of Hagar seeking water for her son. Sale, Prel. Disc. sect. iv.

NOTE U. U. p. 224.

FIVE months in the year, the first, seventh, eleventh, and twelfth, and that of Rhamadan, were set apart for fasts, and other solenın observances, by the reiterated command of the Koran. Kor. .ch. iv. v. is. See also Prideaux's Life of Mahomet, p. 64, and Reland de Jur. Milit. Moham. p. 5. In every other month, seve. ral days were also to be devoted to similar purposes. . During the holy months all war was to be suspended, except war with the infi

del. For him there was to be no remission and no rest. Kor. ch. ii. ix. If, to the time thus occupied in the services of religion, we add the months and years exhausted in pilgrimage, we may form some conjecture of the portion of life appropriated by the true Mussulman to holy observances.

NOTE V. V. p. 224.

THE pulpit of Mahomet is minutely described by the Mahommedan writers. It consisted of three steps. The prophet, when he was to address the people, sat on the highest step, and placed his feet on the second; Abu Beer sat on the second, and placed his feet on the third ; and Omar sat on the lowest, and placed his feet on the ground.

Mahomet, when he preached, had accustomed himself to lean on the trunk of a palm-tree, which had been driven into the ground;. but one day giving the preference to his pulpit, a sound issued from the neglected trunk, like the bellowing of a camel, and expressive of sorrow for the desertion of the prophet. Instantly the preacher descended froin his pulpit, embraced the afflicted trunk, and addressed to it the most endearing language, till, at leugth, he restored it to peace and good humour. Pocock, In Not. ad Spec. Hist. Arab. p. 188. Eutychius, tom. ii. p. 360.

NOTE W. W. p. 225. I CAN find but one passage in the Koran which glances at a priesthood. “Verily,” said God to Abraham, “ I will continue thee a model of religion to mankind.” Kor. ch. ii. p. 24. The Arabic word Imam, here translated a model, is synonimous, says Sale, In loco, with Antistes; and the Mahommedans, on the authority of this passage, and the practice of their master, have established an order of priests, to whom they have given the name of Imams.

NOTE X. X. p. 225. « WE hear in the streets but the exclamations of Ya Allah, O God; Allah Akbar, God most great; Allah taala, God most high. Every instant the ear is struck with some of the ninety-nine

epithets of God, such as Ya Vani, source of riches ; Ya Mastour, o Impenetrable. If a man sells bread or water, he does not cry bread or water, but, God is liberal, God is generous. Are these men devout? Yes, but without being the better for their devotion." Volney's Travels, ch. xxxix.

NOTE Y. Y. p. 230. ADULTS were never baptized until they had been solemnly instructed in the doctrines of the Gospel, and their faith had been sufficiently enlightened and confirmed. “But when they believed Philip preaching the things concerning the kingdom of heaven, and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized both men and women." Acts viii. 12. " And Philip said to the Eunuch, If thou believest with all thy heart, thou mayest. And he said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. And Philip baptized him." Ib. 37, 38. The persons

who were first admitted to Christian baptism were adults, capable of comprehending the conditions of the admission. But as whole families are said to be baptized at once, Acts xvi. 15, 13, we cannot doubt that little children, who, according to St. Paul, “ are holy," and to whom, according to an higher authority, “ is the kingdom of God,” were baptized among the rest. · First Epist to Corinth. vii. 4. Mark x. 14. If the promise of the covenant is expressly said “to be to us and to our children," Acts ii. 39, without

any limitation of age, why should not the children, since they partake of the promise, partake also of the sign? They are unable, indeed, to comprehend the conditions of baptism, but may they not be engaged, and will they not be bound, to fulfil them, when they are capable of doing so ? Thus by the act of circumcision, children became debtors to the whole law, Galat. v. 3, not because they understood and admitted the obligation, but because they were bound to accept and fulfil it, when they arrived at years of discretion and judgment. See Secker's excellent Lectures. Lect. xxxv.

NOTE Z. Z. p. 261. THE exposure of infants, a gentle term for infanticide, became the “ prevailing and stubborn vice of antiquity." Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. viii. It was a vice openly, and legitimately perpetrated, and the practice was as frequent as it was barbarous. When the husband, in the play, reproaches his wife for not having obeyed his orders in putting their child to death, the wife humbly replies - Mi Chræmes, peccavi fateor; vincor; nunc hoc te obsecro, quanto tuus est animus natu gravior, ignoscentior, tanto sit, ut meæ stultitiæ in justitiâ tuâ sit aliquid præsidi. Ter, Heautontim, Act iii. 5. What an apology from a mother, for listening to the humanity which pleaded for her child's life; and with what indifference is the crime meditated by Chremes mentioned on the stage!

In the Hecyra of the same author, we have another instance of this barbarous custom. Hecyr. Act iii. sc. 3.

The most eminent philosophers of Greece admitted the same paternal authority which Chremes claimed. They thought it just that the state should be freed from the burden of

ildren who were not likely to contribute to its support; and men of the highest attain, ments were ignorant that it was a virtue to preserve, or a crime to take away, the life of an innocent child. Dion. Halicar. Antiquit, Rom. lib.ii. Seneca, de Ira. lib. i. c. 15. Cicero, de Legib. lib. iii. c. 8. Plato, Republic. lib. v. Aristot. Polit. lib. vii. c. 16. Locke's Reasonableness of Christanity, Works, vol. ii. p. 534.

In the prevalence of the practice so authorized, the barbarity of it was forgotten; and he who could describe himself as the most humane of merr-Homo sum, humani nihil a ne alienum-might not think it a sin against humanity to order the murder of his child. Terence, Heautontim.

NOTE A. A. A. p. 263. Diogenes LAERTES has recorded many of the Kugías dožar, or fundamental maxims of his master, lib. x. segm. 150, 151. lib. x. segm. 77. I have not exaggerated, and Seneca sufficiently explains, them. Nihil justum esse naturâ, et crimina vitanda esse quia metus vitari non possit. Epist. 97. See also, Athenæ. Deiphnos. lib. i. c. 17. Cicero, Tuscul. Disputat. lib. iii. 9 18. On this scheme corporeal gratification was every thing, and every thing, but as it referred to corporeal gratification, was nothing. Truth might be avowed, virtue obeyed, fame pursued, honour sought, but sense was the directing power, and its indulgence the sole motive. Yet Epicurus could write books about piety and morals. Diog. Laert. lib. x. segm. 27. Epictet. Dissertat. lib. ii. ch. 20. Sect. 2, 3, 4. Cicero, de Nat. Deor. lib. i. c. 41.

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