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ELEMENTS OF ANATOMY

EDITED BY

EDWARD ALBERT SCHÄFER, F.R.S.

PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY AND TUSTOLOGY IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON,

AND

GEORGE DANCER THANE,

PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY IN I'NIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDOX.

IN THREE VOLUMES.

VOL. 1.-PART I.

EMBRYOLOGY

BY PROFESSOR SCHÄFER.

ILLUSTRATED BY 200 ENGRAVINGS, MANY OF WHICH ARE COLOURED.

Tenth Edition.

LIBRARY OF MEDICINE
FRANCIS A. COUNTWAY

IN THE
BOSTON MEDICAL LIBRARY

LONDON:

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.,

1890.

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EMBRYOLOGY.

STRUCTURE OF OVARJAN OVUM; MATURA-

Further details regarding the develop-
TION OF OVIM

ment of special parts of the Brain

Formation of Polar Globules

The fifth cerebral vesicle : Bulbar vesicle

Fertilization.

II

or Metencephalon .

Meaning of Polar Globules.

12 The fourth cerebral vesicle : Cerebellar

Theory of Minot

I 2

vesicle or Epencephalon.

66

Theory of Weissmann

14 The third cerebral vesicle : Mesen-

Recent Literature of the Ovum

14 cephalon : Mid-brain .

67

SEGMENTATION OF THE OVUM ; Forma-

The second cerebral vesicle : 'Thalamen:

TION OF THE BLASTODERM

16, 17

cephalon

67

Gastrula Condition of the Vertebrate The first cerebral vesicle : Prosencephalon 66

Ovum

The Olfactory Lobes .

71

Views concerning the Gastrulation of Formation of the Fissures and Convolutions 21

Vertebrates

DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVES

Inversion of Blastodermie Layers in some Spinal nerves

73

Mammals

23

Cranial nerves

75

Historical view of Blastoderm

23

Optic nerves

79

Characters of the Blastodermic Layers 24

Olfactory lobe

79

Parablast theory of His .

25 Sympathetic nerves and ganglia

81

Mesenchyme theory of Hertwig.

26 Recent Literature of the development of

Recent Literature of Blastoderm

27 the Nervous System:

81

EARLY CHANGES IX BLASTODERM

30

DEVELOPMENT OF THE EYE

83

Neural Canal.

Of the Retina

86

Notochord

Of the Lens

Separation of the Embryo

34 Capsule of the Lens

Cleavage of Mesoblast

Vitreous humour

Formation of Body Cavity

Corneal epithelium

Formation of Mesoblastic Somites

Sclerotic

88

Cerebral Vesicles

37

Choroid coat.

Heart and Vascular System

Accessory structures .

89

Recent Literature of Early Changes in Lachrymal gland

Blastoderm

41 Lachrymal canals and ducts

DEVELOPMENT

Fetal Mem:

DEVELOPMENT OF THE EAR; THE LÁBY:

BRANES ; ATTACHMENT OF OVUM TO

RINTH

UTERUS

42

Accessory parts of the Organ of Hearing,

Formation of the Amnion and Chorion

42

External and Middle Ear

93

Formation of the Allantois

43 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOSE

95

Changes in the Uterus and mode of Recent Literature of the development of

attachment of Ovum to Uterus

the Sense Organs

The Placenta

53

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ALIMENTARY Canai

99

Separation of the Decidua at birth, and

Of the Mouth and parts in connection

regeneration of the Uterine Mucous

with it.

99

Membrane.

55 Pharynx

Recevt Literature of the Decidua

55 Tongue

DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 57 Esophagus, Stomach, and Intestines

103

Of the Spinal Cord

57

The Mesentery ·

104

Of the Brain

61 The Spleen

108

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ELEMENTS

OF ANATOMY.

INTRODUCTION.

ANATOJY, in its most extended sense, is the science which deals with the structure of organized bodies. It is divided into departments according to its subjects ; such as Human Anatomy; Comparative Anatomy, or the study of the structure of different animals ; and Vegetable Anatomy, comprehending the structure of plants.

On examining the structure of an organized body, we find that it is made up of members or organs, by means of which its functions are executed, such as the root stem and leaves of a plant, and the heart, brain, stomach and limbs of an animal ; and farther, that these organs are themselves made up of certain constituent materials named tissues or textures, such as the cellular, woody, and vascular tissues of the vegetable, or the osseous, muscular, connective, vascular, nervous, and other tissues, which form the animal organs.

Most of the tissues occur in more than one organ, and some of them indeed, as the connective and vascular, in nearly all, so that a multitude of organs, and these greatly diversified, are constructed out of a small number of constituent tissues ; and parts of the body, differing widely in form, construction, and uses, may agree in the nature of their component materials. Again, as the same tissue possesses the same essential characters in whatever organ or region it is found, it is obvious that the structure and properties of each tissue may be made the subject of investigation apart from the organs into whose formation it enters.

The foregoing considerations have led to the subdivision of anatomy into two branches, the one of which, under the name “General Anatomy,” or “ Histology," treats of the minute structure of the component tissues of the body ; the other, named “Special or Descriptive Anatomy,” treats of its several organs, members, and regions, describing the outward form and internal structure of the parts, their relative situation and mutual connection, and the successive conditions which they present in the progress of their formation or development.

To the description of the origin and formation of organs in the embryo, a special chapter is devoted in this work, under the name Embryology.

The study of anatomy may be viewed in two different aspects ; viz., the physiological and the morphological. In the former, anatomy supplies the materials relating to structure from which an explanation is sought of the uses or functions of organs by the physiologist ; and for this purpose the study of histology is of particular service. In its morphological aspect, anatomy investigates and combines the facts relating to the structure and relations of organs, from which may be deduced general principles as to the construction of the human body or that of

VOL. I.

B

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