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PAGE 204. Anglo-Saxon Sword

109 205.

Umbone of Shield, Tissington, Derbyshire 110 206. Sepulchral Slab, Lismore, Ireland

117 207, 208. Slabs, Darley Dale, Derbyshire...

123 209. Alvaston, Derbyshire

123 210. Darley Dale, Derbyshire ...

123 211. Alvaston, Derbyshire

123 212. Slab, Hartington, Derbyshire

123 213, 214, Darley Dale, Derbyshire

123, 125 215. Wentworth, Yorkshire

125 216—220. Ancient British Coins, Mount Batten, Plymouth

139, 140 221, 222. Anglo-Saxon Coins ...

143 223, 224. Pennies of William I. or II.

147 225. Penny of Edward I.

147 226. Angel of Henry VI.

147 227. Shilling of Henry VII.

147 228. Quarter-Noble of Henry IV.

147 229. Gold Penny of Henry III.

147 230. Bells and Musical Instruments, from an Illuminated MS.

152 231. Anglo-Saxon Bell

152 232, 233. Examples of Bell Lettering, Devonshire


Elton, Derbyshire 157 235.


157 236. Bell Founders' Marks, Baslow, Derbyshire...

159 237. (John Draper)

159 238. Derbyshire

159 239. Appleby, Derbyshire

159 240.

Derbyshire (R. Heathcote) 159 241. (William Foundor)

159 242. Bell Ornament, Devonshire

160 243. Duffield, Derbyshire

160 244. Morley

160 245. Devonshire

160 246. Morley, Derbyshire

160 247. Brassington, Derbyshire

160 248. Imperforate Bead, Adderbury, Oxfordshire


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PAGE 249. Glass Bead, Glutton, Derbyshire

181 250. Hoylake, Cheshire

181 251. Sepulchral Glass Bottle, Bartlow Hills

181 252. Roman Interment, Avisford, Sussex

181 253. Ro an Glass Bowl, Leicester

182 254–266. Examples of Anglo-Saxon Glass Vessels

183 267. Anglo-Saxon Ale Glass, from an Illuminated MS. 185 268. Jet Neckļace, Middleton Moor, Derbyshire

204 269. Celtic Interment

205 270. Amber and Glass Necklace, Wyaston, Derbyshire 207 271, 272. Earrings, Kentish Barrows

209 273. Bone Pins, Darley Dale, Derbyshire

212 274. Jet Stud, Rudstone, Yorkshire

212 275. Calais Wold, Yorkshire ...

213 276. Fibula, Bottisham, Cambridgeshire

214 277. Scarborough, Yorkshire

214 278. Royal Irish Academy

214 279. Little Chester, Derbyshire

214 280. from the Mayer Museum ...

215 281–290. Fibulæ from Kentish Barrows

216 291, 292.

Winster, Derbyshire (front and back

216 293. from Kentish Barrows

216 294. Hoylake, Cheshire

217 295.

from the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford ... 220 296. found in Westmoreland

221 297. Armlets, Middleton Dale, Derbyshire

224 298. Torques

225 299. Needwood Forest, Staffordshire

227 300. Comb

229 301, 302. Girdle Ornaments

230 303. Tweezers, Leicester

231 304. Bucket, found in Northamptonshire









THE remains of the Ancient British, or Celtic, period which have come down to us, consist in the main of barrows, stone circles, pottery, implements of flint and of stone, weapons and ornaments of gold and bronze, and various articles in bone and jet, etc. To each of these classes I purpose devoting a few pages, so as to give a general insight into the remains of that, and subsequent, periods of our early history. It is not my province to speak of the different races who have inhabited our land, nor of their habits or modes of life, their history or their progress in the arts and in civilization, but of those remains only which time has spared, and which we see around us at the present hour.


First, then, as to the barrows, which, it may well to remark, are grave-mounds, or sepulchral tumuli, and are known in different districts as

barrows,” “lows,” “tumps,” “ cairns,” “houes,” etc. They belong to the three great periods of our history, the Celtic, the Romano-British, and the AngloSaxon; and although each of these bears a very close general resemblance to the others, there are certain differences in detail that are observable to the practised eye, and their contents, of course, vary considerably.

The barrows of the Celtic period, as I have on a former occasion written,* vary in their form and size as much as they do in their modes of construction, and in their contents. “Sometimes they are simply mounds of earth raised over the interment; sometimes heaps of stones piled up over the body; and sometimes, again, a combination of cist and earth and stone. Generally speaking, the mounds are circular, rising gradually and gently from the level of the ground towards the centre, but in some instances the rise is somewhat acute. Now and then they are oval in form. Where elliptical barrows occur (generally known as “long barrows') they are, I have reason to believe, not matters of original design, but of accident, through additional interments; and I much doubt the propriety of archæologists, at the present day, continuing the very questionable nomenclature adopted by Sir R. C. Hoare and others. In some cases, however, as in the instances of chambered or walled tumuli, the elliptical form of the barrow can be easily understood. An examination of a very large number of barrows leads me to the opinion that the original form of all was circular, and that no deviation from that form, and no difference in section, can be taken as indicative of period or of race.

*“Grave-Mounds and their Contents."

Another appellation occasionally used, that of 'twin barrows,' is further evidence of this—two interments having been made within a short distance of each other, and the mounds raised over them running into and joining each other. It may, however, for purposes of description, and for this alone, be well to retain the names, while discarding much of the theory and of the system which has been attempted to be established regarding them.”

Their form and construction will be best understood by reference to the sections. Fig. 1 shows a mound, or cairn, of stones raised over the body,

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which is simply laid in the usual doubled-up or contracted position; the outer edge of the circle being formed of rough slabs of stone laid one on another, with their upper ends sloping inwards.

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