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Another variety, rounded at both ends, with or without a cutting edge, and deeply grooved round the middle, is occasionally found. These are conjectured by Mr. Evans to have been used as sinkers for nets or lines, for which purpose they are well adapted, the groove being deep enough to protect small cord around it from wear by

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Fig. 45.

friction."

Herein there can be little doubt Mr. Evans is in error. The form is much the same as that of “punches” or “cutters” used by blacksmiths even at the present day, and the groove is admirably adapted for the twisting round of a "withy," or hazel stick, in the same manner as is yet done. By this means an equally, or indeed more, useful weapon would be formed than if pierced with a shaft-hole. Stones of the general form of mauls, but not pierced, are sometimes met with, as are also others intended for use without shafts.

Some of these have indentations or hollows worked in their sides for firmer holding in the hand, and others have a shoulder on one, or on each, side, for the same purpose. Fig. 46 shows one of this latter variety, and it is surprising how firm a grip may be gained by, and how much force can be given to a blow from, such an instrument, which becomes an effectual and deadly weapon in the hand. Rough stones, which have probably been used for triturating purposes—the grinding of corn, etc.--are occasionally found. Querns or handmills of late Celtic date are sometimes met with both in Scot

land and in Ireland, as are also whetstones or sharpening stones, and other objects.

Flint implements are of extremely varied form, character, and use, and are of very general occurrence among Celtic remains. They may for general

purposes be classed Fig. 46.

as flakes and chips; scrapers, knives, etc.; spear and arrow heads, etc.; "thumb flints;" and other varieties. Of the modes of forming flint implements adopted by our primitive forefathers it is unnecessary here to speak; all that need be done is to give a few examples of the more

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usual forms which researches have brought to light,

and to refer the reader, for more detailed information,

information, to Mr. Evans's “ Ancient Stone Implements," where the whole subject is very ably treated.

Barbed arrow-heads are among the most beautiful and delicately shaped of flint instruments. The examples given in Figs. 47 to 51 show some of the most typical forms and zes which are usually found. The two upper examples are from Yorkshire; and the next three (Figs. 49, 50, and 51), from Derbyshire, are examples in my own collection. These are engraved of their full

size. Fig. 54.

The whole of these, it will be seen, are stemmed as well as barbed—the stem being used for attachment to the shaft. Another variety has the two barbs, but no central stem. Two of these are engraved, in the next figures (Figs. 52 and 53), of their real size. Others with only a single

barb are not of unfrequent occurFig. 55.

rence in Derbyshire, and, with

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