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modifications, in Yorkshire and other districts. Two of these are shown in Figs. 62 and 63.
One distinct class of form is that usually known as “leaf-shaped,” and this may be taken to be the prototype of the bronze dagger of a later period. Of this shape, arrow-heads, javelin-heads, daggers, or what not are formed. Some of these have, perhaps erroneously, been classed as “knives.” The example Fig. 54 is from Green Low, and is of remarkably fine form. Fig. 55 is from Danby Moor; Figs. 56 and 57 from Calais Wold; and Fig. 58 from Gunthorpe. The two from the Calais Wold barrow, it will be seen, approach in form to the next or angular variety, of which examples are given in Figs. 60 and 61. These are from the same barrow, and are highly developed in their angles and in their attenuated points. Another form, of which Fig. 59 is a typical example, found in Derbyshire, is of rare occurrence in England. It is deeply serrated on its edges, and its base is formed for tying on the shaft with a thong.
Another variety, again, which at first sight appears more intended for throwing than for any other purpose, and which, with their sharp cutting edges, and the unerring aim of the Briton, must, if such was their use, have been indeed deadly weapons, is frequently found; one is shown in Fig. 65. These are simply lumps of flint, an inch and a half or a couple of inches or more in diameter; flat on one side and chipped into roundness on the other.
These are often called “ thumb flints,” and are, with good show of reason, called by Mr. Evans by the general name of "scrapers."
Flakes of various sizes and forms constantly occur, and various uses have been assigned to them with more or less show of reason. Celts are occasionally, but very rarely, found formed of flint.
I have alluded to the superstitions formerly prevalent concerning stone hammers, and it is necessary to add that flint arrow-heads come in for a fair share of a like superstitious feeling. They are, or rather were (for the belief is almost worn out), called "elf-shots," "elfin-darts," “
elfin-darts," "fairy-darts," fairy-bolts,” and the like. They were supposed to have been used by the fairies in injuring men and cattle. Wherever found they were looked upon with reverence, and even awe; and were religiously preserved both as charms against sickness and death, preventives of the exercising of malignant
power by evil spirits, purifying of water, etc. They were occasionally set in silver, and in other ways worn as
charms." Fig. 68.
Spindle-whorls of various sizes, forms, and material, used, as their name implies, in the processes of spinning with the distaff and spindle (Fig. 68), are not unfrequently met with. They vary in size from one to about three inches
* “Reliquary,” vol. vii. p. 207.
in diameter, and those of the Celtic period are usually flat circular pieces of stone pierced in the middle, and with flat or rounded edges. Spindlewhorls of wood and of bone, of ivory and of lead, etc., have been found with Roman and Anglo-Saxon remains. Sling-stones, carved balls with circles and channels evidently for tying with thongs or ropes, so as to form a formidable offensive weapon, and other stone articles, are of but rare occurrence. Small cups of stone or of Kimmeridge shale and many objects formed of jet, may occasionally be seen.
AMONG CELTS AND OTHER EARLY INSTRUMENTS
CELTS, daggers, awls, pins, and many other articles of bronze belonging to a very early period, are of frequent occurrence. Celts, palstaves, and socketed celts, however, are not often met with in barrows, but are more generally ploughed up in the course of agricultural operations. They vary much in form, in character, and in size, and are occasionally slightly ornamented.
The most simple, and therefore considered justly the earliest, form of these implements (shown in Figs. 69 to 71) is evidently a reproduction in metal of the common type of stone celts, as will be seen on reference to Figs. 30 and 34. This form, which the late Sir William Wilde judiciously denominated the “simple flat celt,” is a plain hatchet-shaped flat piece of metal, the two ends rounding gradually off to a sharp edge. The size varies considerably from about three inches to upwards of twelve.