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the intercommunion of person with per- can be called religion which does less than son; it is obedience, trust, love; and this. Out of the life breathed into us by obedience must be to a person, trust must the Eternal and Invisible Spirit we may be in a person, love must be for a person. form our own ideals, discover the divine If we love the person and substitute laws, and find our inspiration. He who therefor an Infinite and Eternal Energy, succeeds in this difficult task will have a we lose religion, whatever we may gain in religion which will not be in vain. - But philosophy. Reverence and love toward surely all this and much more is done for Xn are impossible. Nor can we substi- him who sees in Christ the image of God tute therefor Humanity, and worship man reflected in humanity. To him the life of by spelling him in four syllables and be- Christ becomes an ideal to be followed, ginning with a capital H. Humanity is the teachings of Christ a divine law of neither an Ideal to be followed, nor a life to be obeyed; and if he believes in Being to be reverenced, nor a Lawgiver to the resurrection of Jesus, Christ himself be obeyed. If we can find nothing to becomes a personal and ever-present take the place of the humanized conception Friend to be trusted and loved. of God which our childish imagination The nineteenth century has witnessed furnished us, except an Infinite and Eternal the overthrow of the latest and subtlest Energy, we must strike the first and great- form of idolatry, the worship of an imagiest commandment from Christ's law and nary deity created by human fancy, but we must eliminate worship from our life. not put into material form. The science It is because men in all ages have realized which has compelled us to substitute a the need of a personified God that they doctrine of the universal Presence for the have interpreted him to themselves in old mechanical idea of God is the Gideon images, wood or stone or canvas, or which has destroyed this image-worship. purely imaginative.. This universal in- Whether humanity follows Clifford and stinct is not without its divine significance. Nietzsche and Strauss and John Cotter
The answer to this questioning of the Morison to the conclusion that there is no heart is that God understands the instincts God, no worship, no invisible world, no of the human race and adapts himself to ideal to follow, no object to reverence, no them. He knows that we need a defined Friend to trust and love; or whether, rid of God, and therefore he defines himself; he four refined and cultivated idolatry, we find knows that we need a human God, and God brought near to us in a human therefore he interprets himself in human experience, so thai following the Ideal ity; he knows that the Infinite can be becomes simple, understanding and obeyunderstood by the finite only through ing the Lawgiver becomes easy, rejoicing finite manifestations; that the universal in and being made strong by the Friend bePresence can be apprehended only in a comes human, natural, and constant—this Person; that he can be made known will depend upon the question whether to men only as he is interpreted in the Church is in truth a Church of Christ. the terms of a human experience. There- For since the doctrine of the divine fore was he in Christ revealing himself to immanence has destroyed the mechanical the world and reconciling the world to conception of the Creator and the political himself. What man needs God gives-- conception of the divine Ruler, it is more an image of his Person, since his Person than ever before essential that the message itself is too great for our acquaintanceship. of the Church should be a message conFor the fanciful image of a “slender man, cerning the Christ. The story of his life of aquiline features, wearing spectacles," must be set forth as the true ideal of life, he substitutes in our experience the his- his teaching must be expounded as the true toric image of Jesus of Nazareth. In interpretation of the laws of life, his charJesus Christ the Great God is imaged, as acter must be portrayed as that of the the wide landscape miles in extent is living, personal, ever-present Friend: beperfectly imaged on the retina of the eye cause in his life is the divine ideal of
What is the office of religion? Is it humanity, in his teaching is the divine law not to furnish an Ideal which we may for humanity, and in his presence is the follow, a Lawgiver whom we obey, a Friend personal God revealed because veiled, and whom we may trust and love? Nothing made known to man because interpreted in
man. In Christ is God's answer to man's the incapable must be looked after by the quest after God. In Christ is the divinely capable, we do not know, but the arrangegiven personification of God to take the ment seems to be as old as society. place of our childhood image, the true Humanity for which the idealized Humanity of the Positivist is but a poor substitute. Erectness of bearing has a moral and In Christ is the Infinite and Eternal inter- a mental as well as a physical effect. preted in a life finite and temporal that when the mind is alert, the head goes up the finite and the imperfect may under and the shoulders are squared. So also stand, follow, obey, serve, and love. when the spirits are high and the heart is
full of pure aspirations. Physical well
being absolutely demands that we should The Spectator
not stoop. If we lean forward, we con
tract the chest, and the lungs have not “ I told Ned that I should not keep on wholesome full play. When we start out telling him to stand up straight. I am to do anything that is brave and noble, we deadly tired of it. But I told him also do not slouch; we look danger, when we that I utterly declined to stoop down to are brave, straight in the face and go at it him." This was said by a lady in a street with head high and shoulders back. That car to a companion with whom she was is the way soldiers march; that is the way evidently comparing domestic notes. The the bridegroom leaves the church when the speaker was tall and slender and as erect solemn words have been said and he goes as a sapling. The idea that she could out into the world to meet the sweet restoop seemed improbable, the idea that sponsibilities of life. Er.ctness of bearshe could stoop for more than a very brief ing is the sign of courage, the evidence moment impossible. If stooping was of hope ; slouchiness indicates decadence pleasant to Ned, it seemed perfectly plain and is evidence of incapacity. One dandy to the Spectator that he would have to in this busy world is worth half a dozen stoop alone, and in that pleasure he would slovens. The dandies are more prompt, never have either the companionship or they are braver, they are more courageous, the sympathy of his erect and very alert they are more self-respecting, they are in wife. It was impossible, however, not to every manly quality finer and more worthy speculate on what kind of a man this Ned of the respect of both men and women. was; and it was easy to reach the conclu- The slovenly man who slouches through sion that he was short and stout and life is a severe trial to men who must be middle-aged, besides being easy-going thrown with him; how women can put and capable of becoming slipshod. His up with him is one of those inexplicable trousers probably bag at the knees, his things past finding out. boots have not the pristine polish of the dandy, and there are likely to be spots on the front of his waistcoat and the lapels B ut women do put up with slouchy of his outer garment. The world is men. Surely, however, this is not because monstrously full of such Neds; and they the men are slouchy, but in spite of it. have had the good fortune, very, very fre. Women do not utterly rebel because the quently, to be mated with tall, fine women best and the gentlest women are so pawho face the world erectly and courage tient and charitable that they submit to ously and come in time inevitably to look every burden without complaint. Indeed, down upon the husbands who are willing under the burdens imposed by incapable to stoop and to slouch during the elder men women very generally improve, get half of life. Thackeray, the all-observing stronger, and take the place which indid not note this exactly, but he did record capacity has abdicated. It is a very inanother and similar fact—that whenever teresting thing to note that in many we see a partioularly large, fine woman instances where a race is decaying the we are very apt to find tripping in her women seem to get stronger as the men wake a small and insignificant husband or get weaker and weaker. This is plainly lover. Whether the love of nature for observable in those Latin countries which contrasts is responsible for this, or whether are rapidly falling behind. The men are often too mean and disagreeable for the con- comes to these homes, but not by any templation of nice minds; but the women means as a welcome guest. Poverty, are still fine, struggling against the fate that however, alone of the ills, except the men, is working the downfall of their people, and enters these homes. The women know growing seemingly stronger in the strug- nothing in their lives of the idleness, the gle. There are instances of this kind of stagnation, the dissipations, and the other decadence, however, much nearer home debasing things which do their sorry work and easier and more painful to study. In upon the men. At home they have plenty some of the very oldest American com- to do, and the greater the poverty the munities the seeds of decay were planted harder the work, the greater the opporlong ago, and now the weeds have grown tunity to get strong. And they do get rank and menacing. In such commu- strong. Their minds and their souls nities the men seem to cumber the earth; expand as the muscles do in the body they slouch through life from generation to of an athlete. Use and exercise in generation growing ever weaker, ever more adversity make the women in such worthless. But the women are as brave communities truly and superbly grand. as the men are contemptible. They con- There is much that is pathetic in their ceal the ravages of decay as best they situation, but their nobility is also very can, they keep crumbling homes together, inspiring. The pity of it is that their they hide despair in dark closets, and face nobility, their sacrifice, their courage, will the world with heads high in the air and not suffice to change the general conthe smile of courage upon their sweet ditions which are working the extinction and noble faces.
of every race which does not arrest decay immediately and radically as soon as it
appears. The surgeons do this for the It is not a matter of sex that the male human body—now cutting off a leg or an should be inefficient and the female effi- arm, or taking a tumor from the intestines; cient under adverse conditions of fortune. what will arrest decay in the social body The same blood flows in the veins of the is another matter, a much more difficult boy as in those of his sister. Sex has matter, a matter not well understood. inherently nothing to do with this difference. Nor does a contrast between one bad and one good so bring the good into This seems a far cry from Ned and the prominence as to make it seem more wife who would not stoop to him ; but it extraordinary than it is. No, it is not really is not far, not farther than right that, for these noble women in the com- next door. The stooping Ned who lives munities to which allusion has been made with his brisk wife in New York is closely would be strikingly noble and efficient akin, in temperament at least, to those in any surroundings in which they might incapables who have slouched away from be placed. They are nobler and stronger their responsibilities and left the burdens than the generality of women because to be borne by wives, mothers, and sisters. they have found opportunities for the This metropolitan Ned may be all right expansion and growth of the finer quali- with the exception of his stoop, but it is ties of their nature. In a community very likely that nothing has saved him which has reached the down grade all the except the good fortune of his environment. evil influences which bear upon those who Had he been born in one of the stagnant are coasting to disaster are brought to communities, he would very likely have bear upon the men. They suffer from spent his days sitting on a box in a village idleness and lack of opportunity; they store, spitting at the stove for hours at a succumb to the dissipations and the de- time, and only going home now and again moralization of stagnation; they embrace to sleep and to be fed by the efficient poverty as though it were something to be woman who, no matter what her lot, never proud of; they stoop and they slouch, would have stooped for anybody or anyand are utterly undone without knowing thing. The stooping Neds, whose environwhat has happened to them. But the ment has saved them, have every reason environment of the women is different to be grateful, but no reason whatever to They are at home. To be sure, poverty be proud.
Chapter X.-A Harder Task than determined to stick to it. I told those Making Bricks Without Straw who doubted the wisdom of the plan that
I knew that our first buildings would not 1 ROM the very beginning, at Tus- be so comfortable or so complete in their N kegee, I was determined not only finish as buildings erected by the experito have the students do the agri
enced hands of outside workmen, but that cultural and domestic work, but to have
in the teaching of civilization, self-help, them erect their own buildings. My plan and self-reliance, the erection of the buildwas to have them, while performing this ings by the students themselves would service, taught the latest and best methods
more than compensate for any lack of of labor, so that not only would the school comfort or fine finish. get the benefit of their efforts, but the
I further told those who doubted the students themselves would be taught to
wisdom of this plan that the majority of see utility in labor, and also beauty and
our students came to us in poverty, from dignity; would be taught, in fact, how to the cabins of the cotton, sugar, and rice lift labor up from mere drudgery and
plantations of the South, and that while I toil, and would learn to love work for its
knew it would please the students very own sake. My plan was not to teach
much to place them at once in finely conthem to work in the old way, but to show
structed buildings, I felt that it would be them how to make the forces of nature
following out a more natural process of air, water, steam, electricity, horse-power
development to teach them how to conassist them in their labor.
struct their own buildings. Mistakes I At first many advised against the ex
knew would be made, but these mistakes periment of having the buildings erected
would teach us valuable lessons for the by the labor of the students, but I was future. Copyright, 1900, by Booker T. Washington.
During the now nineteen years' exist
ence of the Tuskegee school, the plan of and dirty, and it was difficult to get the having the buildings erected by student students to help. When it came to bricklabor has been adhered to. In this time making, their distaste for manual labor in forty buildings, counting small and large, connection with book education became have been built, and all except four are especially manifest. It was not a pleasant almost wholly the product of student task for one to stand in the mud-pit for labor. As an additional result, hundreds hours, with the mud up to his knees. of men are now scattered in every part of More than one man became disgusted and the South who received their knowledge left the school. of mechanics while being taught how to We tried several locations before we erect these buildings. Skill and knowl- opened up a pit that furnished brick clay. edge are now handed down from one set I had always supposed that brickmaking of students to another in this way, until was very simple, but I soon found out by at the present time a building of any de- bitter experience that it required special scription or size can be constructed wholly skill and knowledge, particularly in the by our instructors
burning of the bricks. and students, from
After a good deal the drawing of the
of effort we molded plans to the putting
about twenty-five in of the electric fix
thousand bricks, and tures, without going
put them into a kiln off the grounds for
to be burned. This a single workman.
kiln turned out to Not a few times,
be a failure, because when a new student
it was not properly has been led into the
constructed or proptemptation of mar
erly burned. We ring the looks of
began at once, howsome building by
ever, on a second lead-pencil marks or
kiln. This, for some by the cuts of a jack
reason, also proved knife, I have heard
a failure. The failan old student re
ure of this kiln made mind him : “ Don't
it still more difficult do that. That is our
to get the students building. I helped
to take any part in put it up."
the work. Several In the early days
of the teachers, howof the school I think
ever, who had been MRS BOOKER T. WASHINGTON my most trying ex
trained in the indusperience was in the matter of brickmaking. tries at Hampton, volunteered their servAs soon as we got the farm work reason- ices, and in some way we succeeded in ably well started, we directed our next getting a third kiln ready for burning. efforts towards the industry of making The burning of a kiln required about a bricks. We needed these for use in con- week. Towards the latter part of the nection with the erection of our own build- week, when it seemed as if we were going ings; but there was also another reason to have a good many thousand bricks in for establishing this industry. There was a few hours, in the middle of the night no brick-yard in the town, and in addition the kiln fell. For the third time we had to our own needs there was a demand for failed. bricks in the general market.
The failure of this last kiln left me I had always sympathized with the without a single dollar with which to make Children of Israel in their task of “making another experiment. Most of the teachers bricks without straw," but ours was the advised the abandoning of the effort to task of making bricks with no money and make bricks. In the midst of my troubles no experience.
I thought of a watch which had come into In the first place, the work was hard my possession years before. I took this