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concerning the crisis or indication thereof. This art will get a gentleman not only much knowledge but much credit, since seeing any sick body he will be able to tell in all human probability whether he shall recover, or if he shall die of the disease, to tell what signes shall go before, and what the conclusion will be ; it will become him also to know not only the ingredients but doses of certain cathartique or purging, emetique or vomitive Medicines, specifique or cholerique, malancholique, or phlegmatique Constitutions, phlebotomy being only necessary for those who abound in blood : besides I would have a gentleman know how to make these Medicines himself, and afterwards prepare them with his own hands, it being the manner of Apothecaries so frequently to put in the Succedanea, that no man is sure to find with them Medicines made with the true drugs which ought to enter into the composition when it is exotique or rare; or when they are extant in the shop, no man can be assured that the said drugs are not rotten, or that they have not lost their natural force and vertue. I have studied this art very much also, and have in case of extremity ministered physick with that success which is strange, whereof I shall give two or three examples: Richard Griffiths of Sutton, my servant, being sick of a malignant pestilent fever, and tryed in vain all our country Physitians cou'd do, and his water at last stinking so grievously, which Physitians note to be a sign of extension of natural heat, and consequently of present death, I was intreated to see him, when as yet he had neither eaten, drank, slept, or known any body for the space of six or seven days, whereupon demanding whether the Physitians had given him over, and it being answered unto me they had, I said it would not be amiss to give him the quantity of an hasle-nut of a certain rare receipt which I had, assuring that if any thing in the world cou'd recover him, that wou'd; of which I was so confident, that I wou'd come the next day at four of the clock in the afternoon unto him, and at that time I doubted not but they shou'd find signs of amendment, provided they shou'd put the doses I gave them being about the bigness of a nut down his throat, which being done with much difficulty, I came the morrow after at the hour appointed, when to the wonder of his family he knew me and asked for some broth, and not long after recover’d. My cozen Athelston Owen also of Rhue Sayson, haying an Hydrocephale also in
that extremity that his eyes began to start out of his head, and his tongue to come out of his mouth, and his whole head finally exceeding its natural proportion, in so much that his Physitians likewise left him; I prescribed to him the decoction of two diuretique Rootes, which after he had drank four or five days, he urin'd in that abundance that his head by degrees returned to its ancient figure, and all other signes of health appeared, whereupon also he wrote a letter to me that he was so suddenly and perfectly restored to his former health, that it seemed more like a miracle than a cure; for those are the very words in the letter he sent me. I cured a great lady in London of an issue of blood when all the Physitians had given her over, with so easy a medicine that the lady herself was astonished to find the effects thereof. I cou'd give more examples in this kind, but these shall suffice; I will for the rest deliver a rule I conceive for finding out the best receipts not only for curing all inward but outward hurts, such as are Ulcers, Tumors, Contusions, Wounds, and the like: you must look upon all Pharmacopaeia's or * Antidotaries of several countries; of which sort I have in my library the Pharmacopaeia Londinensis, Parisiensis, Amstelodamensis, that of t Quersetau, Bauderoni, Renadeus, Valerius Scordus, Pharmacopaeia Ooloniensis, Augustana, Venetiana, Vononiensis, Florentina, Romana, Messanensis ; in some of which are told not only what the receipts there set down are good for, but the doses of them. The rule I here give is, that what all the said Dispensatories, Antidotaries, or Pharmacopaeias prescribe as effectual for overcoming a disease, is certainly good, for as they are set forth by the authority of the Physitians of these several countries, that they all ordain must necessarily be effectual : but they who will follow my advice shall find in that little short Antidotary called Amstelodamensis not long since put forth, almost all that is necessary to be known for curing of diseases, wounds, &c. There is a book called Aurora Medicorum very fit to be read in this kind.
* Antidotaries usually make a part of the old Dispensatories; for when poisons were in fashion, Antidotes were equally so.
+ Josephus Quercetanus published a Pharmacopæia Dogmaticorum restituta, 1607, 4to. Paris. Bricius Bauderouus, Pharmacopæia & Praxis Medica 1620, Paris. Johannes Renadæus, Dispensatorium Medicum, & Antidotarium 1609, 4to. Paris. Valerius Cordus, Dispensatorium. Antw. 1568.
Among writers of physick, I do especially commend after Hippocrates and Galen, * Fernelius, Lud. Mercatus, and Dan. Sennertus, and Heurnius; I cou'd name many more, but I conceive these may suffice. As for the Chymique or Spagyrique Medicines, I cannot commend them to the use of my posterity, their being neither Emetique, Cathartique, Diaphoretique, Diuretique Medicines extant among them, which are not much more happily and safely perform’d by Vegetables; but hereof enough, since I pretend no further than to give some few directions to my posterity. In the mean time while I conceive it is a fine study and worthy a gentleman to be a good Botanique, that so he may know the nature of all Herbs and Plants, being our fellow creatures, and made for the use of man; for which purpose it will be fit for him to cull out of some good herball of the Icones together with the description of them, and to lay by themselves all such as grow in England, and afterwards to select again such as usually grow by the highway side, in meadows, by rivers, or in marshes, or in corn-fields, or in dry and mountainous places, or on rocks, walls, or in shady places, such as grow .by the sea-side, for this being done, and the said Icones being ordinarily carried by themselves, or by their servants, one may presently find out every herb he meets withall, especially if the said flowers be truly colour’d. Afterwards it will not be amiss to distinguish by themselves such herbs as are in gardens and are exotiques, and are transplanted hither. As for those plants which will not endure our clime, though the knowledge of them be worthy a gentleman, and the vertues of them be fit to be learned, especially if they be brought over to a Druggist as medicinall, yet the Icones of them are not so pertinent to be known as the former, unless it be where there is less danger of adulterating the said niedicaments, in which case it is good to have recourse to not only the Botaniques but also to Gesnar's Dispensatory, and to Aurora Medicorum above mention’d, being books which make a man distinguish betwixt good and bad drugs; and
* Johannes Fernelius (Physician to Henry II. of France) published Opera Medicinalia, et Universa Medicina, 1564, 4to. & 1577, fol. Lud. Mercatus (Physician to Philip II. and III. of Spain) was author of Opera Medica et Chirurgica, fol. Francof. 1620. Daniel Sennertus published, Institutiones Medicinæ, 1620; and Johannes Heurnius a work with the same Title, 1597. Lugduni,
thus much of Medicine may not only be usefull but delectable to a gentleman, since which way soever he passeth, he may find something to entertain him. I must no less commend the study of Anatomy, which whosoever considers, I believe will never be an Atheist, the frame of man's body and coherence of his parts being so strange and paradoxal, that I hold it to be the greatest miracle of nature; though when all is done, I do not find she hath made it so much as proof against one disease, least it shou'd be thought to have made it no less than a prison to the soul.
Having thus passed over all human literature, it will be fit to say something of moral vertues and theological learning.' As for the first, since the Christians and the Heathens are in a manner agreed concerning the definitions of vertues, it wou'd not be inconvenient to begin with those definitions which Aristotle in his morals hath given, as being confirm’d for the most part by the Platoniques, Stoiques, and other Philosophers, and in general by the Christian Church, as well as all nations in the world whatsoever, they being doctrines imprinted in the soul in its first original, and containing the principal and first notices by which man may attain his happiness here or hereafter, there being no man that is given to vice that doth not find much opposition both in his own conscience and in the religion and law is taught elsewhere; and this I dare say, that a vertuous man may not only go securely through all the religions but all the laws in the world, and whatsoever obstructions he meet, obtain both an inward peace and outward wellcome among all, with whom be shall negociate or converse; this vertue therefore I shall recommend to my posterity as the greatest perfection he can attain unto in this life, and the pledge of eternal happiness hereafter, there being none that can justly hope of an union with the supreme God, that doth not come ás near to him in this life in vertue and goodness as he can, so that if human frailty do interrupt this union by committing faults that make him uncapable of his everlasting happiness, it will be fit by a serious repentance to expiate and emaculate those faults, and for the rest trust to the mercy of God his Creator, Redeemer, and Preserver, who being our Father and knowing well in what a weak condition through infirmities we are, will I doubt not, commisserate those Transgressions we commit when they are done without desire to offend his Divine Majesty, and
together rectifie our understanding through his Grace, since we communly sin through no other cause, but that we mistook a true good for that which was only apparent, and so were deceived by making an undue election in the objects proposed to us, wherein though it will be fit for every man to confess that he hath offended an Infinite Majesty and Power, yet as upon better consideration he finds he did not mean infinitely to offend, there will be just reason to believe that God will not inflict an infinite punishment upon him if he be truly penitent, so that his justice may be satisfied, if not with man's repentance, yet at least with some temporal punishment here or hereafter, such as may be proportionable to the offence; though I cannot deny but when man wou'd infinitely offend God in a despitefull and contemptuous way, it will be but just that he suffer an infinite punishment: but as I hope none are so wicked as to sin purposedly and with an high hand against the Eternal Majesty of God, so when they shall commit any sins out of frailty, I shall believe either that unless they be finally impenitent, and (as they say, sold ingeniously over to sin) God's mercy will accept of their endeavours to return into a right way, and so make their peace with him by all those good means that are possible. Having thus recommended the learning of moral philosophy and practice of vertue, as the most necessary knowledge and usefull exercise of man's life, I shall observe that even in the employing of our vertues, discretion is required, for every vertue is not promiscuously to be used, but such only as is proper for the present occasion. Therefore though a wary and discreet wisdom be most usefull where no imminent danger appears, yet were an enemy so draweth his sword against you, you shall have most use of fortitude, prevention being too late, when the danger is so pressing. On the other side there is no occasion to use your fortitude against wrongs done by women or children, or ignorant persons, that I may say nothing of those that are much your superiors, who are magistrates, &c. since you might by a discreet wisdom have declined the injury, or when it were too late to do so, you may with more equal mind support that which is done, either by authority in the one or frailty in the other. And certainly to such kind of persons forgiveness will be proper; in which kind I am confident no man of my time hath exceeded me: for though whensoever my honor hath been engaged, no man hath ever