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the adjoining rooms or wards. Some one ought to be in charge of the ventilation, and alone responsible for it, who should study and master the effects of wind action, and the difficulties attached to the proper control of the inlets, outlets, and other arrangements. Unless this is done, the best planned and furnished system may become inoperative and unworkable, and what might, with proper supervision and a little adjustment, prove perfectly successful, will be condemned as useless and wrong in principle.

INDEX.

Air, 7-13, 5°-54

— a continuous ocean, 7, 22.

— carbonic acid in, 52-54.

— contamination, 50.

— currents, 53, 64, 66, 67, 85, 86,

88, 131, 134.

— currents, intermittent, 13-15, 54,

64, 72, 75, 79, 86, 91.

— density of, 8.

— elastic properties of, 13-16, 17,

23, 58, 96, 108.

— extractors, efficiency of, 27.

— friction of, 7, II, 14, 21, 27, 97.

— heated before walls, 4.

— impurities in, 40-49, 50-54, 59.

— inlets, 3, 7, 8, 10, n, 13,.17, 18,

351 38, 54-68, 74, 84, 89-92, 100-102, 105-107, 108, 113, 115-120, 128-130.

at the floor level, 13, 24, 67,

68, 77, ioo-ro2, 105, 106, 107, 117-120. choked, n, 72.

— in churches, etc., 51-54.

— moisture in, 40-49.

— outlets, 6, 9, 12, 38, 39, 54-68, 85,

89, 92, 93, 99, 100, 104, 105, in, 114, 115, 121, 128-130,

I3I-I33

— quantity per head, 50-53.

— shafts, 8g-g2, 132, 133. should be regulated at the

top, 91.

— supersaturated with moisture, 48.

— tension of, n.

— velocity of, 9, 10.

— washing of, 44, 45.

— waves, 14, 18-20, 29, 30. Alternating air currents, 13-15.

] Anemometer, use of, 16, 21. Antiseptic matter in air, removal of, 45

Bacteria and moist air, 41, 47. Board school, wind effects upon,

36, 37Breath, moisture in, 47-49, 52. Buildings, public, as they are, 6g-g2.

selection of sites for, 112,113.

should be high, 113, 114.

types of, 69, 92.

Carbonic acid in air, 52-54.
Caretaker, 124-136.

— and inside temperatures, 2, 4.

— and summer ventilation, 27, 28, 32-36, 109, no, 115-117, 131.

— and the heating of the building, 127-130.

— and the roof ventilators, 126.

— and the ventilating pressure of his building, 99.

— and window openings, no, 125,

131

— has imperfect appliances, 122.

— heating a church, 65.

— instructions for, 121-136.

— noting heat from breath and human bodies, 4.

— of a hospital, 135, 136. —- of a town hall, 134, 135.

— of a school, 131-134.

— of a school and empty classrooms,

132. x33

— only must adjust ventilators, 1, 106.

— should carefully inspect inlets, 125.

Caretaker to consider the influence of winds, 124, I3I

the sun upon the building,

125.

— to introduce all the warm air

possible, 127.

— to take outside temperatures, 1,

124-126. Caretakers, skilful, 133. Carnelly, Haldane and Anderson on

the cubic feet of air for each

person, 50, 51. Churches and public buildings as

they are, 69-92. —; wind action upon, 30-35. Coal gas, composition of, 46.

— moisture from burning, 46-49. Contraction of air, 23.

Cowl, lobster, 26.

Cracks in roofs of churches, etc., 9,

10, 69, 70, 72, 79, 93, 94, 97,

iog.

Density of air, the measure of

ventilating force, 14. Diffusion of air, 67. Doors, closing chinks around, 9, n,

104.

— double, 120.

— for ventilation, 32-35. Downward ventilation, 59, 60. Draughts, 9.

— down, 13, 14, 74, 75, 86, 88, 91,

94, 98, 99, 105, 121, 126.

— indicator, 98.

Dust in air, 41.

Education Department on inlet space per head, 55, 61, 63.

Effects of moist air upon ventilation, 40-49.

— of wind upon ventilation, 21-39.

— of sun upon ventilation, 97. Elastic properties of air, 13-16, 23,

58, 108.

— thread illustration, 23, 24, 58.
Electric light, 6, 52, 79, 82, 103.
Equinoctial gales, 22.
Expansion of air by heat, 7.

wind, 23.

Experiments in ventilation, 15-20.

— with kites, 21.

Experiments with open tubes, 26.

— at the seaside, 28-30.

— in the House of Commons, 44.

Fan, the, 103-110, 134, 135.
Fans, no.

— for schools, 110.
Fires, lighting of, 129, 130.

Foul air extraction, 59, 60, 61, 62, 86, 101, 105, 106.

shafts, 36, 37, 131.

Friction of air, 7, n, 14, 27, 97. equals loss of pressure, 12.

— of wind, 21, 27. Furnace ventilation, in. Furnaces, 5, 129, 130.

Gas burners, 17, 18, 72, 74, 75, 77.

— flames indicate air currents, 17,

18, 77.

— for heating purposes, 6, 85.

— moisture from the burning of,

46-49. Gaseous products, 52-54.

Hall, public, experiments with,

15-17. Heat-aided ventilation, no, in. Heat of human bodies and breath,

4Heating air, 2, 130.

— by coal gas deleterious, 6, 48.

— by hot iron plates and surfaces,

43. 44. 45. 46, 53. 64. IO°.

— by hot water pipes, 15, 35, 37,

43. 44. 46, 53. 63, 66, 72, 89, 91, 94, 100, 108, no, in, 117, 118,

131. '33

— by radiators, 54, 66, 89.

— by steam, 133.

— by stoves, 70, 80, 84.

— chamber, 117, 118.

— churches, etc., 3, 17.

— hospital wards, 44. —. inlet air, 63, 64.

underneath the building by

hot water pipes the best method, 101.

— walls of buildings, 5, 6. Hospital, wind effects on a, 37, 38. Humidity, 40-49.

— De Chaumont upon, 41.

Roof, cracks and fissures in, g, 1o, 6g, 7o, 79, g3, g4, gs, g7, 1o9.

— leakage of air from, 1o, 11, 7o,

88.

— outlets should be regulated, 18,

g6, 97, 1oo, 1o9.

— should be covered with felt, 114,

119.

— ventilation, 9, 13, 114, 115.

— ventilators, 23-25, 7o, 94-gg, 114,

115, 126.

continuous currents through,

25

Impurities in air, 4o-49, 5o-54, 5g.
Inlet space per head, 54, 55, 56, 61.
Inlets. See Air inlets.

— size of, 118.

— covers for, 128-13o.
Intermittent air currents, 13, 14, 64,

65. 72. 75. 79, 86, 91.

Jackets removed in church, 3.

Louvre ventilators, 85, 98. to be nicely regulated, g8.

Managers of churches and public

buildings, 121-124. Mechanical ventilation, 99, 1o3-111.

how rendered inoperative,

1o4-1o7.

instance of, 1o3-1o5.

Mission halls, 4, 51, 88.

Mixing chamber for warmed air,

1o7, 117-119. Models of ventilators, 25, 26. Moisture in air, 4o-49.

— in breath, 47, 49, 52.

— diffuses slowly, 54.

Natural ventilation, 7, 38, 39, 69,

99, 1o3, 1o5, 1o7, 135.

Organic matters in breath, 41, 42.
Outlet space, 74.
Outlets. See Air outlets.

— cracks in the roof, g.

— in roof want controlling, 18, 77,

1oo, 115, n9, 132.

— velocity of air through, 9, 8o. Overclothing removed in church, 3.

Parkes on air required, 5o, 51, 54.

— on gaseous products, 52, 53. Physical laws and ventilation, 1-2o. Pneumatic ventilators, 23, 24, 99.

efficiency of, 27, 98, gg.

Pressure greater inside a building

than out, 14-16, 75.

— indicator, 15, 74.
Pressure of air inside, 1o, n. lost by friction, 12.

Public must not interfere with
ventilators, inlets or outlets, 1,
1o2, 1o6.

Schoolrooms under churches as hot air chambers, 1o1, 1o2.

— ventilation of, 1o1.

Science school, wind effect on, 35.
Self-acting system of ventilation for

churches and public buildings

impossible, 123. Silk valves, 8o, 82, 98. Sites for buildings, selection of, 112,

"3Smoky chimneys, 3o, 37, 62. Summer, ventilation in, 27, 28, 32

36, 49, 1o7, 1o9, 115-117, 131. Sun, effects of, upon ventilation,

97Superintendent of ventilation in

churches, etc., 122, 123. Systems of ventilation, 123.

Temperature, 1-6.

— and ventilation, 4.

— of the air inside, 1-5, 123. outside, 1, g7, 123.

— of walls, 5, 6.

Thermometer for inside temperatures, 2, 4, 123.

— for outside temperatures, 2, 3,

123

Tobin shafts, 1, 8, 35-38, 55-57.

kept closed, 8, 36.

Town hall, wind effects on, 35, 36.
Toxic properties in the moisture
from breath, 42.

Valve regulators, 124.
Valves, double, 86, g8.

— of mica, g8.

— of silk, 8o, 82, g8.

Warmed fresh air, 24, 67, 68, 70, 77,

7g-82, 100-102, 105, 106. Washing air, 44, 45. Waves of air, 18-20, 29, 30. Whirlwinds, how formed, 30. Wind, action of, upon ventilation,

21-39. 99. 131- not reliable, 24-26, 27.

— aspiration, 23, 27, 29, 30, 36, 37,

57. 58. 99

from streets, 23, 30-32.

overrated, 21.

— effects against a cliff at the

seaside, 28-30.

— a hill side, 22.

upon air inlets, 108, 113.

a board school, 36, 37,

38, 8g-g2.

a hospital, 37, 38.

a science school, 35.

a town hall, 35, 36.

church C, 31-33.

— . church C1, 33.

church C-, 33, 34.

church C3, 35, 38.

doors, windows, etc., 28.

outlet ventilators, 22, 23,

25. 57

Tobin shafts, 37, 57.

ventilators, 22, 23, 32, 39,

Iog.

— pressure, 23, 58.

— velocity, 21.

Window openings, 1, 32-35, 60, 61, 82-84, 104, 105, 106, 115, 117,

131

— special one provided, ng, 120. Windows opened indiscriminately

upset ventilation, 135, 136.

— should open outwards, 116, 117,

ng.

Zinc, perforated sheets of, 100, 102 ng.

Valves of ventilators, 74, 79, 8o, 93

97-
Velocity of air through ventilators,
g, 10, 8o, 109, 117, 118.

— of wind, 21, 22.
Ventilating pressure, 2, 7-13, 77.

— — calculation of, 8.

greatest in cold weather, 13.

how used up, 11.

in spring and autumn, 7.

instrument for indicating, 106.

lost by friction, 12.

Ventilation, 23, 24.

— effects of moist air upon, 40-49. of wind upon, 21-39.

— how it can be improved in build

ings already erected, 93-102.

— in spring and autumn, 4.

— in summer, 27, 28, 49.

— natural, 7, 38, 39, 69.

— of a large chapel, 75-77, 84-86.

— of a lecture hall, 80-82.

— of a public hall, 72-75.

— of a public school, 8g-g2.

— of buildings with rooms under

neath, 101, 102.

— of chapels and halls, 86-88.

— of churches, 30 35, 69-72, 77-80,

82-84.

— of halls, 133, 134.

— of hospitals, 37, 38, 135, 136.

— of large buildings under the care

of one person, 136. —. of mission halls, 88, 89.

— of schools, 8g-g2, 131-134.

— of town halls, 35, 134, 135.

— use of doors for, 1, 32-35. Ventilators in windows, 32-35,

115-117.

— self-acting, 23, 25, gg, 123.

— roof, 23-25, 70, g3-gg, 120, 126.

— valves of, 95-97

defective, 74, 79, 80, 95-97

Walls, temperature of, 5.

ThE ABERDEEn UNIVERSItY PRESS lIMITED.

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