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Living or lifeless to be found was none;
None yet, but store hereafter from the earth
Up hither like aereal vapors flew

Of all things transitory' and vain, when fin
With vanity had fill’d the works of men ;
Both all things vain, and all who in vain things
Built their fond hopes of glory' or lasting fame,
Or happiness in this or th'other life;
All who have their reward on earth, the fruits



requisite in the greater kinds of 444. None yet, &c.) Dr. Bentley poetry, that Aristotle observes the is for rejecting this verse and fifty ancient tragic writers made use of four more which follow as an inthe names of such great men as fertion of the editor ; but I think had actually lived in the world, there can be no doubt of their ge. tho' the tragedy proceeded upon nuinness, whatever there may be adventures they were never en- of their goodness. Mr. Richard. gaged in, on purpose to make the fon thinks the Paradise of Fools is subject more credible. In a word, finely imagin'd, but it must be besides tie hidden meaning of an ownd that it is formed more upon epic allegory, the plain litteral the taste of the Italian poets than sense ought to appear probable. of the Ancients, The story hould be such as an or. dinary reader inay acquiesce in,

fie in 457. - and in vain,] To wap.

der in vain as commonly under, whatever natural, moral, or poli

stood would be a weak expreffion, tical truth may be discovered in it;

" but it has the force of the Greek by men of greater penetration.


097&s, the Latin fruftrà, temer, 443. - lifelef] Milton writes Fortuito, nullo confilio, at random. it livelifs; but I conceive the word to be compounded of less and the 459. Not in the neighbring moon, fubftantive life, and not of the as some have dream'd;] Ario, verb livra lif less without life, as fto particularly, who in his Orlanfearless without fear, lifless with- do Furioso, Cant. 34. St. 70, &c. out lift or desire, puerlifs, ruthless, gives a much larger description of Joapeless, &c. . things loft upon earth and treasur'd



Of painful superstition and blind zeal,
Nought seeking but the praise of men, here find
Fit retribution, empty as their deeds;
All th' unaccomplith'd works of Nature's hand, 455
Abortive, monstrous, or unkindly mix'd,
Diffolv'd on earth, fleet hither, and in vain,
Till final dissolution, wander here,
Not in the neighb’ring moon, as some have


the mom

The reader the Limbo opport here

up in the moon, than our poet here The vows that finners make and

never pay, The seader may have a taste of it The counte's wise that careless in the following ftanza's of Har men negleet, sington's translation,

The fond desires that lead us oft

aftray, A store-house strange, that what

The praises that with pride the on earth is loft

heart infect, By fault, by time, by fortune, there

And all we lose with folly and is found,

mispending, And like a merchandise is there

May there be found unto this place ingroft, In' ftranger fort than I can well

ascending expound; Nor speak I fole of wealth, or

And so he proceeds in enumerating things of cost,

other particulars, the vanity of tiIn which blind fortune's pow's

tles, false flatteries, fond loves, doth most abound,

great men's promises, court-serBut e'en of things quite out of for

vices, death-bed alms, &c. and tune's pow'r,

men's wits kept in jars like oil, Which wilfully we walte each day likewife made fine use of this no

Our late great English poet has and hour.

tion in his Rape of the Lock, The precious time that fools mis. Cant. 5. as indeed it seems to be pend in play,

fitter for a mock-heroic poem than The vain attempts that never take for the true epic. effect,



Those argent fields more likely habitants, - 460
Translated Saints, or middle Spirits hold
Betwixt th' angelical and human kind.
Hither of ill-join'd sons and daughters born
First from the ancient world those giants came
With many a vain exploit, though then renown'd:
The builders next of Babel on the plain



Some thought it mounted to the is certainly less considerable in itlunar sphere,

self than our earth, it is not likely Since all things loft on earth are that its inhabitants should be fo treasur'd there.

much more considerable. There hero's wits are kept in 463. Hither of ill-join'd fans and pond'rous vases,

daughters born &c. } He And beau's in snuff-boxes and means the sons of God ill-join'd with tweezer-cases.

the daughters of men, alluding to that There broken vows, and death. text of Scripture, Gen. VI. 4. There bed alms are found,

were giants in the earth in tbec And lover's hearts with ends of days; and also after that, when tbe ribband bound,

fons of God came in unto the daughters The courtier's promises, and sick of men, and they bore children to man's pray’rs,

them; the fame became mighty men, The smiles of harlots, and the which were of old, men of renoun: tears of heirs,

where by the fons of God fome FaCages for gnats, and chains to thers and Commentators have unyoke a flea,

derstood Angels, as if the Angels Dry'd butterflies, and tomes of had been enamour'd and married cafuifry.

to women; but the true meaning

is that the posterity of Seth and 460. Those argent fields &c.] There other patriarchs, who were woris no question I believe now among shippers of the true God, and philosophers, that the moon is in- therefore call’d the fons of God, inhabited; but it is greatly to be que- termarried with the idolatrous po. stion'd whether this notion of our sterity of wicked Cain. author be true, that the inhabi- 467. Of Sennaar, ] Or Shinar, tants there are translated Saints or for they are both the same name Spirits of a middle nature between of this province of Babylonia. But Angels and Men; for as the moon Milton follows the Vulgate as he


Of Sennaar, and still with vain design
New Babels, had they wherewithal, would build :
Others came single ; he who to be deem'd
A God, leap'd fondly into Ætna flames, 470
Empedocles; and he who to enjoy
Plato's Elysium, leap'd into the sea,
Cleombrotus; and many more too long,


frequently does in the names of ness in another life, he was so ra. places.

- vilh'd with the account of it, that 471. Empedocles; ] The scholar he leap'd from a high wall inte of Pythagoras, a philosopher and the sea, that he might immediately poet, born at Agrigentum in Sicily: enjoy it. His death is celebrated he wrote of the nature of things by Callimachus in one of his epiin Greek, as Lucretius did in Latin grams, Ep. 29. which we will subverse. He stealing one night from join with Frischlinus his translahis followers threw himself into the tion. fiaming Ætna, that being no where to be found, he might be esteemed Eita?

À Ernas indo xorps, Kasou begro to be a God, and to be taken up

wou bean16715,

'Haat' ag úfnae Thyo HS into Heaven; but his iron pattens,

oüdrive being thrown out by the fury of

| Αξιον δεν ιδων θανατο κακον, the burning mountain, discover'd ASCO his defeated ambition, and ridi

αλλα Πλατων

' “Εν το σερι ψυχης γεαμμαναculed his folly. Hor. de Art. Poet,

nga plat, 464.

- Deus immortalis haberi Phæbe vale dicens, de rupe CleomDum cupit Empedocles, ardentem

brotus alta frigidus Itnam

Ambraciota, Stygis vivus adivit Insiluit. Hume.


Funere nil: dignum passus : solúm492. Cleombrotus;] The name is que Platonis sighuy placed the last word in the De vita mentis perpete legit sentence, as Empedocles was before. He was called Ambraciota of Ambracia, a city of Epirus in Greece. And from hence other authors seem Having read over Plato's book of to have taken his story, as Cicera the Soul's immortality and happi. Tusc. Disp. I. 34. Callimachi qui.


Embryo's and idiots, eremites and friers 474
White, black, and gray, with all their trumpery.
Here pilgrims roam, that stray'd so far to seek
In Golgotha him dead, who lives in Heaven ;
And they who to be sure of Paradise


dem epigramma in Ambraciotam order and confusion. We have the Cleombrotum eft : quem ait, cum fame artful negligence in Paradise ei nihil accidiffet adversi, e muro Regain'd, II. 182. se in mare abjecisse lecto Platonis libro: and Ovid Ibis. ver. 493. Have we not seen, or by relation Vel de præcipiti venias in Tartara


In courts and regal chambers how faxo, Ut qui Socraticum de nece le.

thou lurk'ft,

In wood or grove by mofiy foungit opus.

tain fide, 473. — and many more too long,] In valley or green meadow to Poorly and deficiently express'd for, way-lay and more too long to name. Bentley. Some beauty rare, Califto, ClyIt feems as if a line were by mif mene, take of the printer left out here; Daphne, or Semele, Antiopa, for (as Dr. Bentley says) it is defi- Or Amymone, Syrinx, many mors ciently express'd. Besides Milton Too long, then lay'f thy scapes oa had been mentioning those who names ador'd. came fingle; and therefore he could not fall upon the mention of em. 475. White, black, and gray, So bryo's, idiots, hermits, and friers named according to their habits, without some other verse inter- white friers or Carmelites, black pos'd, which mould finish the ac- friers or Dominicans, gray friers count of those who came fingle, and or Franciscans, of their founders contain a verb for the nominative St. Francis, St. Dominic, and mount cases embryo's, idiots, &c. which at Carmel where that order pretend present is wanting. Pearce. they were first instituted. Our auA very ingenious person questions, thor here, as elsewhere, shows his whether Milton by this appearance disike and abhorrence of the church of inaccuracy and negligence did of Rome, by placing the religious not design to express his contempt orders with all their trumpery, of their trumpery as he calls it, by cowls, hoods, reliques, beads, esc hustling it all together in this disa in the Paradise of Fools, and not


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